SUSS PSY 355 CREATIVE PSYCH SU 1a Theories & models of creativity…
SUSS PSY 355 CREATIVE PSYCH SU 1a Theories & models of creativity
Consist of four stages
The problem continues to
develop and transform
in the subconscious in this phase
Eventually, through incubation, a creative solution to the problem emerges leading to a
burst of insight
In this stage, the inventor is
deeply immersed in the problem
and source for all relevant information.
The inventor may not be able to tackle the problem outright. it eventually is relegated into the subconscious.
The inventor then elaborates and experiments this insight through a process of verification.
Different perspectives of creativity
Humanist view creativity as a form of
that enables us to live our lives to the fullest.
e.g., a retired businessman finds deep meaning in life by setting up a new enterprise which distributes the profits to charity
the existence of
They assume that all responses are as a result of rewards and punishment and not as a result of a unique, individual creative expression.
Psychoanalyst views creativity as a form of
that enables us to deal with anxiety or loss.
e.g. an artist paints a moving picture of a loved one who has abruptly passed away to cope with his grief
Theoretical models of creativity
The Six Ps
The Four Ps
Refers to the characteristics of the creative product.
Refers to the creative process.
Refers to the attributes of the creative person.
Refers to the elements of the creative press or environment.
The sixth P is potential as a distinction can be made between the creative potential of youth and creative achievement of adulthood.
The fifth P is persuasion as creators must persuade others of the value of their original ideas.
The Four Cs
Refers to amateur or lay-everyday people's creativity.
Refers to the creativity of professionals who earn from their creative works (i.e artists)
Refers to the creativity at the beginners level. Occurs frequently in young children and new learners.
Refers to creativity of eminent and highly influential geniuses who produce original and creative ideas. (I.e. Picasso who developed cubism)
Developmental theories of creativity
examine the development of
creativity across the life-span
type of family
environment promotes the nurturing of individual creativity.
link between childhood play and creative
accomplishments in adulthood
Environment and creativity
Research has established that creative individuals grow up in an enriched home where parents
provide opportunities for intellectual stimulation
(i.e. visiting the library)
Other research found that home environments which
fostered personal interests, individual autonomy and self-confidence
spurred development of creativity.
Play and creativity
Vygotsky argued that
had a basis in
activities of children.
Different types of play influence the development of different components of creativity
Types of play which promotes creative problem-solving skills which may have more than one solution promote divergent thinking. (i.e. playing with LEGO).
Children who engage in convergent activities fared poorly in unstructered tasks
Pretend play involves the use of imagination and make belief stimulates the development of
This enables the child to work with
Evolutionary Theories of creativity
Suggests that the creative process is akin to the evolutionary process.
That is, creative solutions stem from a varity of ideas of which a promising option is selected and refined further.
Blind variation selection retention (BVSR)
From an evolutionary perspective, Simonton (1998, 1999) asserts that the
creative process consists of two stages,
blind variation (BV)
selective retention (SR)
This first stage involves proliferation of ideational variations.
The inventor comes up with
The second stage involves the refinement of the chosen solution
Here the inventor selects a promising solution and refines it based on certain criteria including Originality, aesthetics, practicality, etc.
Agreement/disagreement on BVSR
Disagreement on BVSR
One theoretical objection of BVSR was proposed by Gabora.
He argued that ideas are not discrete, independent units that exist in some dormant state waiting to be selected out from other alternatives in a darwinian manner.
Gabora proposed a context driven actualisation of potential (CAP)
This involves a change of state in response to
a context, which can propel creative thought via a non darwinian process.
Supporting the Evolutionist
Evolutionary theorists provide empirical evidence from various sources to support their argument for the evolutionist perspective.
Finke, Ward and Smith (1992) found that creativity is maximised when the process of solving the open-ended problem is blind and exploratory rather than planned and deliberate.
In other words, by beginning with the totally unexpected, experimental respondents were forced to stretch their creativity to the highest degree.
stands for “generate and explore”
scientific analysis of creative products: equal-odds rule
An interesting finding here is the equal-odds rule, which asserts that, the creator has no immediate control over the outcome of his creative labour, nor can he learn how to improve his chances.
By stressing the operation of blind chances
in the creative process, the
account for the equal-odds rule
, according to evolutionary theorists of creativity.
Many notable creators in different fields have explicitly claimed that their creativity appears best described by a process akin to BVSR.
Systems theories of creativity
These theories suggest that
is best conceptualised as being a complex phenomenon which arises from a system with
different components interacting with one another.
Three components of creativity
Csikszentmihalyi located creativity at the interaction of three components:
The person refers to the creative individual who makes a significant change to the domain due to talent, hard work, discoveries, life experiences, etc
This also includes the motivation and drive behind the inventor
The field refers to the regulatory bodies within that domain. (I.e journal editors, critics, professors, etc)
The field of regulatory bodies decides if indeed the creative idea constitutes a significant contribution to that domain.
The domain consists of a set of symbolic rules and procedures (i.e. maths/architecture)
Domains are key because It is impossible to introduce a creative variation without reference to an existing pattern/model.
Making and selling
The systems theory also implies that any new inventor must make a distinction between making and selling a creative product.
Refers to the creation of novel ideas
Refers to the act of persuading the field of regulatory bodies by presenting its value,
Economic theories of creativity
Views creativity as being shaped by micro and macroeconomic forces operating on both individual and society.
Micro and Macro Perspective
The macro-societal level focuses on issues like the aggregate level of demand and supply of creativity in society as well as competition for creative talent that can help the society prosper.
Demand, supply and creative class
Outstripping of creative product demands to supply has led to the rise of the creative class.
The distinguishing characteristic of this creative class is that it engages in work to create meaningful new forms of product/strategy/model, etc.
3 Ts of economic development
To nurture or draw in the creative class and stimulate economic growth, 3 Ts had to be mastered.
The workforce should consist of highly-skilled, well-educated people.
work culture should remain open and allow for a diverse exchange of ideas.
Tech infrastructures should be in-place to promote creativity.
Micro individual level focuses on issues like the cultivation of creative resources and the costs/benefits of creative work
Individual creative resources
From a Micro- individual perspective, people differ in the number of creative resources due to various factors including Environment, education, opportunities, traits, etc.
Those who possess more creative resource, display higher levels of creative performance and those who possess less creative resources can build them up gradually.
Individual Benefits and costs of creativity
Social ostracism/ isolation
Psychic costs (i.e. emotional obstacles encountered)
Pecuniary costs (i.e. time and resources put into the creative process
Investment theory of creativity
Compares the creative individual to a successful investor who 'buys low and sells high'
Two do so, a combination of two approaches is employed
Looks to evaluating which aspects of a creative idea would ultimately enable it to gain
(i.e. Originality, practicallity, etc)
Explore past trends in what has been viewed as creative to
predict what would be viewed as creative
in the future.