English and New Media (ENGL 231) (Module 3: Approaches to New Media (Hard…
English and New Media (ENGL 231)
Module 1: Introduction to New Media
" of computing are communication, content and computing
" is the synthesis of two histories (Flew, 2014, p.5)
According to sources Asia has the highest number of internet users, the book states that that is about 44.8% of the population
: a broad term in media studies that emerged in the latter part of the 20th century
Core principles of Wikinomics
1.) Openness, open source and open standards of movements
2.) Peering, promotion of collaboration through open, horizontal networks
3.) Sharing, adoption of less proprietary approaches to intellectual property
Acting globally, seeking to source knowledge and resources from all parts of the globe
Module 2: Twenty Concepts in New Media
1.) Collective Intelligence is the idea that none of us can know everything; each of us know something; and we can put the pieces together if we pool our resources and combine our skills
2.) Creative Commons is a non-profit organization founded in 2001, "that is devoted to expanding the range of creative works available for others to build upon and share."
3.) Digital Divide refers to inequality in access to computers and Internet, but it also refers to the ability to use these technologies to be able to participate in public life.
4.) Hacking is the sharing and modifying computer programs to explore them, as well as gaining entry into a security system.
5.) Marshall McLuhan used the term "remediation" to describe how experiences with any medium are conditioned by those media with which are familiar.
Moore’s Law: The # of transistors in a circuit doubles every two years.
Module 3: Approaches to New Media
is the idea that new technologies are "shelf generating" and are invented in an independent sphere that create new societies
Social shaping of technology is the alternative view to technological determinism
Marshall McLuhan and Raymond Williams give completely opposite views on how media technologies are developed and used
McLuhan described media technologies as "extensions of man"
Income levels, gender, and socioeconomic status still exist as barriers to full and equal participation in new media
Actor-network theory proposes that anything that makes a difference is an "actor" and rejects technological determinism
Kranzberg's First Law is that "technology is neither good, nor bad, nor is it neutral."
Technology is the basis for all human activity.
Hard (Strong) Determinism
Technology develops independently from social concerns.
We organize ourselves to “meet the needs of technology.”
Technology is autonomous.
Soft (Weal) Determinism
More accepted than strong determinism views.
Technology still guides evolution, but we have free will to adopt (sometimes after a cultural lag). 1
“a new device merely opens a door; it does not compel one to enter” 2
Module 4: Social Networking & Media
Metcalfe's Low is the equation [n x (n-1) = n2 - n] which means that membership in a network has value to the user but is more valuable to other users
Newark externalities can be either positive or negative
"Modularity" is a property of a project that determines the extent to which it can be broken down into smaller components. A nuclear plant is low modularity, whereas Wikipedia has high modularity.
In 2007 was the year with the dos active Wikipedians
On study found that the accuracy of entires added on Wikipedia to be comparable to the Encyclopedia Brittanica
stands for Social Networking Sites
One criticism of social networking is that it creates "public spiracles" and fragments public issues
What makes a Network?
1.) Mall worlds
2.) Strength of weak ties
3.) Hubs and connectors
4.) Power laws of distribution
Module 5: Games Technology, Industry, Culture
Employment in the games industry is male dominated and lacks diversity
Features of games are:
2.) Negotiable Consequences
3.) Player Effort
5.) Player-attached outcomes
6.) Valorization of outcomes
refers to the use of game mechanics is non-game contexts such as education
Games and Gaming Platforms:
1.) Handheld games
2.) Mobile Games
3.) Games within social media
4.) Console games
5.) PC based games
6.) Arcade games
The gaming industry's revenues have exceeded the movie and music industries in the United States
The decline of the Golden Age of Arcade Games was partially due to the shift towards home-based games, such as the NES
The most popular PC based game is Sims
Module 6: New Media & the Transformation of Higher Education
Completion rates for MOOCs are extremely low
The University of Phoenix is the largest for profit institution
The main competitor of universities is the industry
The Five P's
MOOC stands for Massively Open Online Courses
The United States is the leading country for international students
The three phases of growth in the higher education sector:
Digital media technologies enable more flexible delivery of education
Key Features of MOOC's
1.) Courses can have unlimited size
2.) They can be free
3.) They are not for academic credit