Cognitive Psychology : The Approach of Cognitive Science ( (Mental…
Cognitive Psychology : The Approach of Cognitive Science
The nation of scripts
A script is a simple, well-structured sequence of events associated with a highly familiar activity.
Script = sequences of stored knowledge
-Scripts provide the underlying mental frameworks for our
-Eachion of us continually follow scripts as we move from one activity or task to another of spreading activat
Difference between an actor’s script, our scripts have been
written into our nervous systems over the course of our lives
To identify objects, parts, and characteristics.
To track moving objects, to navigate, to search, to reach appropriately.
To identify properties of imaged objects, which allows us to retrieve information from memory.
People use for - memory retrieval, problem solving, producing descriptions, mental practice, motivational states, and daydreaming and association.
Experimental evidence for mental imagery
Turning imagined objects in the mind’s eye as if looking at real objects
What goes on in the brain as one sees with one’s mind’s eyes correspond
directly to what goes on when one sees with ones actual eyes.
To investigate the the time it takes to scan between two locations on a mental image
The distances are embodied in mental images in the
same way as in one’s actual visual perception of pictures
When people operate on mental images they appear to go through a process analogous to actually operating on a physical object.
Problem - the situation people face when they want something but do not know right away what to do to get it.
Problem solving involves
An initial state - the current state
Path for reaching the goal
Comprehension - Understanding Cognitive Science
Transformation- Turn expectations into Science
Arrangement - Playing Scrabble
the length of time it takes to arrive at a solution
whether it is finally solved
Difficult depends on the interaction of the problem solver with the task environment
Problem be Solved
Human being operates as information processing system
~ concepts - relations - memory
Familiarity with domain of the problem
~ Experts vs Novice
Experts - vast experience gained,
Store representation of whole ‘chunk’
Incoming sensory input/information from the environment remains briefly before “decaying” and becomes completely lost.
Purpose of sensory memory = to hold information just long enough for some of it to be selected for further processing in working memory (or short-term memory).
Other types of less studied sensory memory
Touch, smell, and taste
Information that passes through sensory memory is then passed to short-term memory.
Persists for half a second
Short term memory
retain information briefy
-information forgotten rapidly when new information follows.
-capasity = limited
-receive input from sensory memory and long term memory- storage- speech like forms, visual forms, other sense
Long Term Memory
store large amounts of information for indefinite periods of time - duration: permanent/long
information from STM constantly being transferred but the transfer depends on individual engagement process
-elaboration- involves linking to already stored assosiations
-mnemonic devices- memory strategy
-categorizes memory according to type remembered:
-declative memory-semantic memory- a network of concepts/proposition - enabling us to understand ideas, solve problems, use language
-episodic memory- occurrences of events
-procedural- knowledge contained with learned skills or cognitive operation