Cognitive Psychology: The Approach of Cognitive Science ( ( ( We acquire…
Cognitive Psychology: The Approach of Cognitive Science
Concept and categories
Concepts and categories are central to how humans represent knowledge about the world
~ A concept is a mental representation of a category
~ A category is a set of objects that ‘belong’ together
A basic crucial process that allows us
to organize our experience
of the world so that we can function in it
~ Good vs bad
~ Safe vs Harmful
The feature approach to categorization
-identifying the necessary and sufficient feature for any category one might choose is not always as easy as it for bachelor
-For instance, uniquely specifies dog- difference in size, color and shape of ears.
-Domesticated is an important feature, it is a category of it own.- comprising dogs, wolves, and others.
The prototype approach to categorization
A prototype is a version of an entity that one might think
od as the average of the type - representation formed of average
values for the features characterizing the entity.
Categorizing hearistically - instead of doing a complete search which would entail considering every entity in our collections that has features in common with the new one until we find a precise match.
Experimental evidence for categories
Experimenters typically construct artificial situations in the laboratory.
The phenomena relating to artificial categories produced in
laboratory experiments occur in natural categories as well.
Important research was carried out fainy early in the game in the perceptual domain of color.
We acquire categories, the types of categories, and experimental evidence regarding our hypotheses about categorization.
Agnosias - individuals with a particular type of agnosia may well be able to perceive the objects within the category the have lost, but they are no longer able to identify them.
Prosopagnosia - the loss of ability to categorize or recognize familiar faces .
The representation of concepts
The two are intimately connected- the representations we have
of the totality of a
From Uncle Joe’s dog, the boy next door’s
dog, our best friend’s dog, and others.
In the intervening period, empirical methods of
inquiry, based on experiment and observation.
The first step after the observations, as always, is the hypothesis.
because aspects, or features, of that concept are linked to features of other concepts.
The representation of propositions
Proposition - some sence complete; not just an
object - a piece of that fudge cake.
A proposition is a unit f meaning that can take a truth value.
There is an intimate relationship between propositions
encoding both the concepts from which propositins are
constructed and the proposition themselves.
Experimental evidence for propositional networks
Priming - based on the activations modes and links associated with a particular concept or proposition.
Thought rests on the mental representation of propositions
~ thought is associative - moving from one idea to another
Association likely due to shared elements in associated thought
Associative process work - Hypothesis -
that meaning and links are stored
In propositional, semantic network.