Respiratory System: function to supply blood with oxygen and dispose of…
Respiratory System: function to supply blood with oxygen and dispose of carbon dioxide
Bronchi: tiny branches, however, visible without a microscope, have cartilage rings, made up of PCCE tissue
Bronchioles: smaller branches, less than 1 mm in diameter, No cilica, No goblet cells, and No cartilage. Made of simple columnar epithelium.
Alveoli: air sacs where oxygen exchange occurs.
Type 2 Alveolar cells: simple squamous epithelium, produces surfactant, a liquid which coats the inside of alveoli preventing it from sticking when you exhale
Macrophage: destroys bacteria
Type 1 Alveolar cells: simple squamous epithelium, exchanges gas
Blood Vessels: covers alveolus, simple squamous and basement membrane
Right lung: consists of 3 lobes. Right superior lobe (upper), Right Middle lobe, and Right inferior lobe (lower)
Left lung: consists of 2 lobes, Left superior lobe, and left inferior lobe
Mediastinum: the space between the lungs includes everything in thoracic cavity except lungs.
Pleura of the lungs:
Visceral pleura: attaches directly to the lungs, the deep layer of pleura
Parietal pleura: outer layer attaches to the chest wall
Gross and Microscopic Anatomy:
Conchae:bony projection at the ethmoid bone (covered in mucus)
Function: increases air turbulance, cleans, warms, and humidifies air. Is Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelial tissue.
Frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillary sinuses
Function:resonance in speech, cleans, warms, and humidifies air. Cavities are lined with epithelial tissue and mucus membrane.
Tonsils: surrounds whole oral cavity. Functions as a passageway for food.There are 4 tonsils which function to trap and destroy evading cells.
Nasopharynx: posterior to nasal cavity above soft palate. PCCE lining.
Oropharynx: continuous with posterior portion of oral cavity, extends from soft palate to epiglottis of larynx. Transitions stratified squamous epithelium.
Laryngopharynx: lies posterior to epiglottis and extends to larynx. Transitions to stratifies squamous epithelium.
Tubual tonsils: lies between eustacian tubes.
Epiglottis: "upon" the "glottis" a small opening between vocal chords.
Function: voice production, opens airways, separates food and air helping both travel down the right tube
Functions: passageway for air, have partial rings of hyaline cartilage. PCCE.
External Respiration: the gas exchange between the blood and the air-filled chambers of the lungs (O2 loading/CO2 unloading)
Internal Respiration: Exchange of gases between systemic blood tissue cells (O2 unloading/CO2 loading)
2 methods of respiration:
Conducting: Exchanges between external environment. Conducting or moving O2 from nose/mouth to respiratory bronchioles
Respiratory: Exchanges between internal tissues. Moves gas from bronchioles to alveolus
Upper respiratory Tract: Nose/mouth to pharynx
Lower respiratory Tract: Larynx to alvoli