RileyDillonRespiratorySystem (gross anatomy of trachea (major functions of…
Internal: exchange of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) between blood vessels (capillaries) and tissue cells
external: exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and blood (capillaries)
inhalation- inspiration: breathing in, bringing air into the lungs
exhalation-expiration: breathing out, removing air from lungs
Main function of the respiratory system: take in oxygen, and expel carbon dioxide. (gas exchange)
General anatomy of respiratory tract: getting air where we need it for gas exchange.
conducting: nose and mouth to respiratory bronchioles
respiratory: from respiratory bronchioles to alveoli
upper and lower respiratory tracts
lower: larynx> alveoli
gross and microscopic anatomy of: nasal cavity, para-nasal sinuses, and pharynx
features: nasal conchae: to create turbulence to increase contact of incoming air with mucous membrane
epithelial lining: pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium,
function: sweep away mucous, warm, clean, humidify incoming air
features: warm, clean, and humidify incoming air. found in maxillary, ethmoid, sphenoid, and frontal regions.
epithelial lining: pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium.
functions: warm, clean, and humidify incoming air. MAIN: gives voice resonance.
features: place that has tonsils
nasal: pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium.
oro: stratified squamous epithelium.
laryngo: stratified squamous epithelium
Function: passageway for air, food, and drink
anatomy of the larynx
major functions of the larynx: voice production, open airway- thyroid cartilage, keeps air and food going to the right place (epiglottis)
glottis: opening between the vocal cords
epiglottis: covers the glottis when were eating food
vocal folds: also known as vocal cords. voice production
gross anatomy of trachea
major functions of trachea: passageway for air to get to lungs
partial rings of hyaline cartilage
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
anterior to esophagus
gross and microscopic anatomy of the bronchial tree: smooth muscle wraps around tubes.
bronchi: size goes from large>small. cartilage decreases with size, seudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium.
bronchioles: small, less then 1mm in diameter, no cartilage, pseduostratifed columnar epithelium
para-sympathetic and sympathetic effects
parasympathetic: contract muscles and constrict bronchioles
sympathetic: relax muscle, open bronchioles
order of air passage: bronchi> bronchioles>terminal bronchioles> respiratory bronchioles> alveolar ducts> alveolar sac> alveoli
alveolar cells and their function
type 1: most abundant, simple squamous epithelium, thing for exchange of air.
type 2: cuboidal shape, secrete surfactant- prevents alveolar walls from sticking together.
macrophages: paroling for things to destroy foreign cells
respiratory membrane: very thin for the exchange of gas, separates the air within the alveoli from the blood in the pulmonary capillaries
gross anatomy of pleura and lungs
left lung: 2 lobes, superior and inferior
right lung: 3 lobes, superior, middle, inferior
visceral: on the organ
parietal: against the body wall
pleural cavity: between the visceral and parietal pleura, filled with serous fluid to reduce friction.