What is development? 07.12.18 (Contested nature of development (Implies…
What is development? 07.12.18
Emergence of development
Came from the post war period. Great sense of optimism as there was a changing world order- 2 world wars and the colonial presence of Europe ending.
Notion of helping other countries by exporting ideas, support and knowledge.
Real sense that this new American (rather than British lead) order was going to challenge the order that came before it.
John F. Kennedy- the leader of this development- 1961, speech to the United Nations "this decade of the 1960'w is the United Nations decade of development"- not even needing a century. "to enable all nations, however diverse in their systems and beliefs, to become in fact as well as in law free and equal nations".
White man's burden?
Only America, Britain and North Europe had the ability to develop and that the others needed help because they "don't have the ability, knowledge or maturity to act themselves".
This was based on evolutionary ideas in the 19th century- social theorists interpreted evolution and rather than seeing evolution as random they saw it as being determined. Certain types of people were more civilised and advanced, many of which explained this due to racial difference.
A view that certain parts of the world were unable to govern themselves (even comparisons to being childlike) - justification for colonialism. Not yet mature enough to govern their own country still need our help- our burden as more advanced nations to help the less developed.
We still see this today- Often campaigns use children (need help and guidance) often seen with white celebrities leasing black children to happiness "saviour".
Measures of underdevelopment
GDP - Gross domestic product
Measures the total production within a countries national space.
GNP- Gross national product
Measures the total production within a countries national space, plus all the external production by companies registered within that country.
sometimes referred to as gross national income
Ratio of total production by total population- total production divided by population e.g. UK $33,360 per person.
Problems with GNP per capita
Measurement of GDP and GNP
The informal economy.
The "problem" of substidence producers.
The internationalisation of production (production of a country increasingly becoming part of the world production process)
Remittances (Foreign workers sending money back home).
Measurement of population
How accurate is the population census?
An economic measure
Inequities across national spaces
Rural- urban difference.
Intra- urban differences.
Inequities between different groups- Gini coefficient.
The Gini index
Used by United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
Gini coefficient ranges from 0-1.
0= perfectly equal.
1= perfectly inequal.
0.2- 0.-2= relitively equal distribution.
0.5- 0.7= relitively inequal distribution.
GNP per capita= $41,440 (2006).
Gini index of 41 (coefficient of 0.41)i.e. not particularly equal distribution.
Almost 40% national wealth in the hands of 2% of the population.
About 80% of the population owns 17% of the wealth.
Life expectancy in some American ghettos can be at African levels. e.g South Chicago male life expectancy about 45 years.
Measures of underdevelopment
Human development index (HDI)
Recognition that development is more than just an economic index from 0-1.
Based on the physical quality of life index
Complex- up to 50 variables.
Although difficulty getting measurements for all variables.
Replaced by HDI- 3 dimensinos of development related to human wellbeing
A long and healthy life
Knowledge- adult literacy rate, gross enrolment ratios in secondary, primary etc.
A decent standard of living- GDP Per Capita.
Contested nature of development
Implies progress/ improvement.
Relitive not absolute concept.
Enrogenic nature of developmeny (European focus)- Progress in relation to Europe and N America.
Development through industrialisation.
Tendency to be dominated by economic indicators.
Measures of underdevelopment -Human Poverty Index (HPI)
Focus on deprivation and poverty.
% of population not expected to live to 40.
% of illiterate population.
% of population with deprivation in living standards.
% of under 5's underweight.
Access to healthcare and clean water
The langauge of development
Developed/ developing countries
Binary division of the world. (either embracing science and technology as well as other modern approaches or entirely traditional- no in-between).
Fundamentally economic division.
More advanced economies/ less advanced economies
Same issues as developed/ developing
1st world of capatalist economies
2nd world of centrally planned Socialist economies.
3rd world of non alighned economies
Still a binary world view.
Global South/ Global North (or The West)