HOD 1250: Applied Human Development (Emotions (Solutions to Negative…
HOD 1250: Applied Human Development
Theories: A model used to explain an often unobservable phenomenon.
Cognitive Theories: Focus on the development of thinking.
Jean Piaget: We develop schemas or organized ways of looking at the world. (STAGE THEORY)
Sensorimotor Stage: Child is able to develop object permanence.
Preoperational Stage: Child thinks ethnocentrically but is able to think symbolically.
Concrete Operational Stage: Child learns conservation of numbers and ideas.
Formal Operational Stage: Ability to think hypothetically and abstractly (algebra).
Lev Vygotsky: Suggests that our thinking develops as part of our social, cultural, and historical context.
Believed that we have an extent of ideas to which we learn, which we need help to learn from and we need scaffolding to build off of ideas.
Behavioral Theorist Perspective: Focus on how behaviors are shaped or conditioned.
Ivan Pavlov: Classical conditioning is a way to create a conditioned response by pairing an unconditioned stimulus with a conditioned stimulus that causes an unconditioned response or a natural response.
John Watson: Focused on classical conditioning in children.
B.F. Skinner: Operant conditioning is a way to modify behavior through reinforcement and punishment.
Social Cognitive Perspective: Study of personal, cognitive, and environmental factors of development.
Albert Bandura: believed that people could learn through vicarious reinforcement, where they learned by simply observing someone else's behavior being reinforced or punished
Psychoanalytic Theoretical Model: Focus on unconscious needs and desires
Freud: Our development is driven by our need to meet unconscious sexual desires
Erik Erickson: We progress through 8 stages where we unconsciously attempt to meet developmental tasks at each stage.
Trust Vs. Mistrust
Autonomy Vs. Shame
Initiative Vs. Guilt
Industry Vs. Inferiority
Identity Vs. Role Confusion
Intimacy Vs. Isolation
Generativity Vs. Stagnation
Integrity Vs. Despair
Generativity Vs. Stagnation: The middle adult psychosocial crisis:
Generativity: Showing interest and wellbeing for future generations
Stagnation: Feeling that one is not producing or being generative and not having a positive impact on others.
Intimacy Vs. Isolation: The emerging adulthood psychosocial crisis
Intimacy is forming a close emotional bond with another person.
Humanistic Theoretical Perspective: Focuses on what is good in all of us. Explaining human behaviors in terms of how needs are fulfilled.
Abraham Maslow: Believed that we have a "hierarchy of needs" where it is more difficult to meet high-level needs if our basic needs are not met. 1. Psiological Needs 2. Love and belonging needs 3. Esteem Needs 4. Self-actualizaion Needs
Carl Rodgers: Focused primarily on our self-actualization needs. Our main motivation is to feel fulfilled in our potential as humans.
Continuous Vs. Discontinuous Development: Some people think of development as a continuous process that is the accumulation of small changes over time. While others consider development to occur discontinuously in separate stages .
Process of Development
Biopsychological Development: How our biological and physical development influence psychological development.
Senescence: The process of biological aging which beings once body structures meet max capacity and efficiency. (starts at age 30)
Climacteric: A peak of fertility, followed by its decline.
Primary Aging: genetic and biological process that contribute to aging in all humans.
Secondary Aging: Aging caused by interaction of genetics and negative environmental influences.
Functional Aging: How abilities and competencies change with age, a more precise marker of age than chronological age.
Emerging Adulthood: connections improve between prefrontal cortex and limbic system, which leads to better emotion regulation and better processing of future, longterm incentives.
Late Adulthood: brain volume decreases due to loss of myelin, death of neurons, and synaptic connections. Adults lose more white matter than grey matter. Changes in hippocampus leads to memory loss.
Presbycusis: Reduced sensitivity to higher pitched sounds brought on by old age.
Presbyopia: farsightedness brought on by old age.
Hayflick Limit: the number of times a cell will duplicate before dying.
Cellular Aging: what happens at the cellular level as we age. We experience cell loss starting in early adulthood.
Cognitive Development: How our thinking develops and how we make sense of the world.
As we age,
(intelligence associated with experience) improves, while
(intelligence involving processing speed, working memory, and inhibitory control) worsens
Inhibitory Control: Ability to block out irrelevant information when working with relevant information.
Selective Attention (the ability to pay attention to some input while ignoring other input) becomes more difficult with age.
Sustained Attention: Paying attention to a stimulus that does not change and waiting for a change, this does NOT change with age.
Divided Attention: Performing two tasks at the same time. Becomes more difficult with age.
Working Memory: where information is temporarily held, diminishes with age.
Reminensince Bump: late adults remember the events clearly between ages 10-30.
Personality: Characteristic ways in which individuals think and behave.
Big Five Factor Trait Theory: Identified 5 traits stable across the adult years
Over time, Neurtocisim and Extraversion decreases and Agreeableness and conscientiousness increase. Openness increases then decreases
Social Cognitive Career Theory: Suggests that career choices are related to feelings of self-efficacy. Belief that positive outcomes can be achieved by choosing a career simply through interest.
John Holland developed theory of occupational choice, concluding that personality types can be matched to work environments and people are more likely to stay in jobs that match their personality type.
6 Personality Types:
James Marcia (MAMA Cycle): Identified stages of Achievement (where adults are stable in terms of identity) and Moratorium (where adults reconsider who they are due to significant changes in life events)
Temperament: Describes predispositions to respond to the world that are emotional.
Early temperament can be related to later personality.
Continuity Theory: Older adults attain life satisfaction by maintaining an identity consistent with their younger selves.
Ill-Structured Problem: Problems with no clear solution that require logic and gut feelings. Adults are better at working with these types of problems. Ability to deal with problems starts in emerging adulthood.
Post-Formal Thought: Understanding that definite answers are not always available and we need to use judgement (improves in adulthood and starts in emerging adulthood)
Maximizing Vs. Satisfying
Maximizing: to seek the best, requiring an exhaustive list of possibilities. Leads to less satisfaction with choice and more anxiety through the process.
Satisfying: to seek 'good enough' searching until encountering an option that crosses the threshold of acceptability.
Self-Authoriship: defined by baxter magnolia, explores how emerging adults understand and make sense of themselves.
External Meaning Making: following authorities without question.
Crossroads: see importance of developing our own voice but have difficulty moving away from external influence.
Self authoring phase: we build an internal foundation tht guides our relationships and decisions.
William Perry: believed that emerging adulthood our view changes from dualistic to realistic.
Dualism: world is seen as either right or wrong.
Realitvism: knowledge and ways of looking at the world are not right or wrong simply. Arguments can be made either for or against either position.
Metacognition: The ability to think about our own thinking, improves in emerging adulthood.
Episodic Memory: memory for events, decreases in adulthood
Socioemotional Development: How emotions and relationships develop and how they impact development.
Bioecological Approach: Created by Urie Brofenbrenner
Microsystem: Relationships in which the person directly takes part
Mesosystem: interaction of microsystems
Ecosystem: institutions which I am not apart of but still influence me
Macrosystem: broader political and cultural system in which one develops
Chronosystem: our timeline and the historical timeline
Activity Theory: Older adults should be encouraged and facilitated to stay active and connected with others.
Living Apart Together Relationships: Older adults maintain separate residences and finances but spend the night together.
Socioecmotional Selectivity: older adults choose relationships that maximize the reward and minimize the risks.
Jeffery Arnet: defined the five features of emerging adulthood:
Ethnicity: Social groups that share a common identity based on ancestral descent and heritage (social construct)
Social Clock: The normative/expected timing in a cultural of taking on social roles.
Microaggressions: verbal or behavioral interaction that conveys hostility.
Ethocentric: believing that your society is superior.
Social Identity Development Theory: Describes attributes that are common to the identity development process for all target and agent groups.
Internalization Stage: task is to incorporate identity into all aspects of everyday life.
Agents, concerned about creating a more equal future attempt to integrate new social identity into culture.
Targets, engaged in integrating their new conscious ness and group ride.
Resistance Stage: increased awareness of the existence of oppression
Agents reject early social propositions, anger is prevalent
Targets question the previously accepted "truths" about the way things are. May be hostile towards agents.
Acceptance Stage: accepted the messages about the nature of their group's identity.
Agents no longer have a conscious effort to follow social codes. usually unaware that they think of themselves and superior.
Targets have learned and accepted messages of inferiority. This is held in contradiction with positive messages about their social group.
Agent: Member of dominant group, privileged from birth.
Redefinition stage: focus is on creating an identity independent of a hierarchal system.
Agents redefine identity indecent of social oppression. Develop pride in their group and personal esteem.
Targets define themselves independent of cultural strengths. No longer see interactions with agents as useful. Attempt to reclaim one's heritage.
Ageism: making judgements about people based on their age.
Elderspeak: talking to older adults like enfants and children
Sterotype Threat: when people are in a situation where they worry about conforming to a stereotype, they are more likely to underperform
Perfectionism: A self-destructive and addictive belief system that feels the thought of an ideal life. Connected to depression and eating disorders.
Evaluative Concerns Perfectionism: Tendency to perceive that others are exerting pressure to be perfect combined with a propensity to evaluate one's self harshly and to doubt one's capacity to progress towards evaluative standards.
Other Oriented Perfectionism: Having unrealistic expectations of others leads us to evaluate them harshly and view them with distrust/hostility.
Personal -Standards Perfectionism: represents the self-oriented tendency to set highly demanding standards and to consciously strive for their attainment.
Socially Prescribed Perfectionism: Linked to the need to meet the perceived standards and expectations of others.
most linked to depression
Self-Oriented Perfectionists: Have a strong need to be perfection and a tendency to set unrealistic standards themselves.
Solutions to Negative Emotions
Self-Compassion: Experiencing feelings of caring and kindness towards oneself. Reduces emotional reactivity, rumination, depression and anxiety.
Functional Analysis: Attempt to end rumination that focuses on what causes and triggers rumination and it's results.
Mindfulness: learning to be fully conscious of the present.
Meditation: develops capacity for mindfulness.
Flow: Being so engrossed in something we are doing that we lose track of time. Allows us to be present in the moment. This is considered enlightened time, when we escape from clock time.
Wholehearted living: goal of personal growth and fulfillment, where we must believe that we are worthy of being loved. Requires: courage, compassion, and connection
Reflective Thought: increased lower level focus provides beneficial problem solving strategies
High level constructions: abstract and general claims focused on desirability of outcomes
Low level constructions: contextual, specific, and incidental details of events and actions.
Shame Resilience: Using Hope, critical awareness, and no numbing to recognize shame and to move through it constructively while maintaining worthiness.
Radical Acceptance: attitude toward accepting the emotions we experience when we encounter situations we cannot change.
Worry: Act of imagining things we are afraid might happen to us in the future. Associated with anxiety
Rumination: repeated binging up of regrets from the past. Associated with depression.
Numbing: using maladaptive methods (ex. drugs) to numb emotions rather than face them.
Shame: experience that we are flawed and unworthy of love and belonging. Associated with worry, rumination, perfectionism, and low-self esteem.
Anxiety: general uneasiness about future threats
Definitions of Happiness
Martin Seligman developed model for describing and guiding our path towards contentment and satisfaction
Munjick worked on the significant of the things in the world that have meaning for us, including aspects of our culture and our world. Things can give us an identity along with pain/pleasure.
Eudamonic Wellbeing: the sense that life is meaningful and has purpose.
Heudonic Wellbeing: feeling good/the pleasant life
Factors that Affect Happiness:
effect of positive or negative life events
activities and practices designed to increase happiness.
Happiness Set Point: Humans have a genetically determined set point for subjunctive wellbeing that they tend to return to.
Sustaining supportive activities: activités that support a positive attitude
Behavioral (working out)
Volitional (better organized)
Parasympathetic Nervous System: slows down the chemistry that activities the drive needed in an emergency, shuts down the sympathetic system.
Emotional Reactivity: the strength of our response to signals from internal/external environments. This is impacted by genetics.
Orchids: children with high emotional reactivity, flourish in a positive environment
Dandelions: Children with low emotional reactivity that are resilient in difficult environemnts.
Sympathetic Nervous System: provides quick and effective response to highly dangerous situations. Charges up psychological systems we need to make a quick exit.