Blindness & Visual Impairment (Educational Placement Options (Regular…
Blindness & Visual Impairment
Description of Disability
a complete loss of vision, although “legally blind” people may retain some vision.
Text to Speech Online
Legally Blind 20/200-20/400
Missed Social Cues
Visual impairment is partial loss of vision that adversely affects daily living.
Low Vision 20/70-20/160
Missed Social Cues
Effective Instructional Strategies
involves "physical placement of the student's body part involved in performing the skill so as to clarify the required movements of the skill"
helps when student's vision is too low to rely solely on verbal and visual cues, and needs tactile cues to master a task, like learning to dive into a swimming pool
pros: allows for progression -- start with a lot of physical guidance, then move to verbal cues of "tactile taps"
cons: all "touching" must be documented, hypersensitivity to touch (O'Connell, 2006).
Empirical Study #1
Empirical Study #2
"inspection by a student of a demonstrator or an object by touch that can help the student learn and understand a skill"
allows students to "feel and explore the model's body in the direction of a given movement," in order to learn the process of the motions necessary for a skill.
pros: "clarifies the mechanics of the movement" for the student, student has more control over their learning process
cons: documenting all "touching," as well as ensuring student knows to tell instructor that they are about to touch (O'Connell, 2006)
Let me be your guide: Physical guidance improves spatial learning for older adults with simulated low vision
Participants walked with and without a physical guide on novel real-world paths in an indoor environment and pointed to remembered target locations. They completed concurrent measures of cognitive load on the trials. Results demonstrate an improvement in learning under low vision conditions with a guide compared to walking without a guide.
Studies of younger adults have shown that mobility monitoring demands can be alleviated, and spatial learning subsequently improved, via the presence of a physical guide during navigation.
Part-To-Whole learning. Students with visual impairment must first learn about the parts before putting it all together. Learning through touch as opposed to vision slows down the speed at which information is taken in.
Some environmental concepts are unavailable to students with visual impairment/blindness due to safety issues. (ex. Lion in a zoo) Teachers must rely on a combination of verbal explanations and realistic models to convey information.
Students with visual impairment/blindness have difficulty learning via observation and must be taught via Direct Instruction
Educational Placement Options
Regular Classroom with itinerant or resource support
Special classroom in the regular school
Special class in a special school