Seed Plants II: Angiosperm (Concepts (Magnoliophyta: Often called the…
Seed Plants II: Angiosperm
Changing Concepts About Early Angiosperm: Seemed reasonable because these species tend to be large trees with dense wood, their flowers are small and simple, usually without sepals and petals, and many gymnosperms have similar features
Classification of Flowering plants
Basal Angiosperm: Contain the liviong descendants of several groups that originated while angiosperms were still a young clade..
Monocots: Have only one cotyledon on each embryo, their leaves usually have parallel veins because the leaves are elongate and strap shaped, vascular bundles are distributed throughout the stem, not restricted in one ring , monocots never have ordinary secondary growth and wood, Flowers of monocots have their parts arranged in groups
Alismatales: Contains many aquatic herbs such as Sagittaria and many aquarium plants such as Hydrocharis, Najas, and Hydrilla
Most found in swamps and marshes, partly or entirely submerged
Lillales: As a large group with many highly derived families; it was basically defines as the "petaloid" monocots- those with large, colorful flowers.
Asparagales: This is a large clade with many families, species, and types of biology. By examining this clade, we get a sense of evolution as diversification
Dioscoreales: Has only one family, Dioscoreaceae, and is mentioned because it has a familiar, important food crop and unusal morphology
Commelinoid monocots: Four orders of monocots are known as the commelinoid monocots because they differ from the others in several unusual synapomorphies: They have unique types of epicuticular wax. Walls have unusual types of hemicelluloses and ultraviolet-fluorescent compounds
Arecales: Contain familiar plants, the palms, in family Arecaceae. Leaves of palms always occur only near the shoot apex, never distributed along the length of the stem
Poales: This order contains the grass family Poaceae as well as several other familiar groups such as cattails, bromeliads, and sedges
Zingiberales: This order contains some of the most familiar of all house plants; Maranta, Calathea, canna lilies, and gingers, as well as some that are best known in the warmer southern states- banana and bird-of-paradise.
Eudicots: Are much more diverse and include a grater number of families, genera, and species, have two cotyledons and reticulate venation in the leaves, vascular bundles occur in only one ring in the stem, can be woody, herbaceous, or succulent or have any of many highly modified forms
Basal Eudicots: Several hamamelid families are now believed to be basal eudicots rather than basal angiosperms
Caryophyllales: DNA- based studies have combined a large number of families into a group
Betalains: Whereas other flowering plants have anthocyanin pigments in their flowers, almost all Caryophyllales instead produce a group of water-soluble pigments called betalains
Perisperm: Another unifying character of Caryophyllales is that endosperm develops only a little and then fails to continue growing. Instead, nucellus cells proliferate and form a nutritive tissue called perisperm
Santalales: Small order of highly modified plants, most of which are parasitic.
Rosid Clade: Consists of many families that, taken as a whole, are so diverse with respect to vegetative body, flowers, chemistry, and ecology that it is difficult to see they are all related
Asterid Clade: Most derived large clade of eudicots, which contains plants such as sunflower, periwinkle, petunia, and morning glory.
Magnoliophyta: Often called the Angiospermophyta, as the most advanced group of plants, or the most derived; occasionally, they are called the peak of plant evolution
Angiosperm Carpels: The edges od sporophyll primordia crowd against each other and grow shut, sometimes leaving a visible suture, sometimes closing so completely that no sign of a seam remains called closed carpels
Double fertilization: this process is universal in flowering plants
Primitively Vesselless: That they lacked vessels because their ancestors lacked them
Secondary Vesselless: The group that arose after vessels had originated but then these groups lost them. If so, they are secondary vesselless, and their tracheid-based, gymnosperm-like wood is a derived featurethat looks like a primitive one
Pistil: the fusion of the carpels into a single structure
Sympetally: Fusion of petals into one structure
Zygomorphy: Flowers that are bilaterally symmetrical, not radially symmetrical