Civil War (Chapter 12: Territorial and Economic Expansion 1830-1860 (Texas…
Chapter 12: Territorial and Economic Expansion 1830-1860
Texas Annexation 1840s
-Texas was a Mexican property but Stephen Austin began a steady stream of American settlers who kept on coming even when Mexico attempted to close the border to American Immigrants.
-Mexican Dictator San Antonio tried to force Mexican laws on Texas but Sam Houston led a revolt and a treaty declaring Texas an independent republic was signed but then rejected by Mexican legislature.
-Texas wanted to be annexed, or added to the U.S but it was initially denied.
-It was finally annexed in 1845 when President John Tyler persuaded both houses of congress to pass a joint resolution for annexation.
-Contributed to the Mexican-American War
Conflict in Maine 1840s
-The border btwn Maine and Canada (owned by British) was unclear and ill defined. Because of this conflict broke out.--Maine-Canadian Border Dispute.--Aroostook War
-Resolved by Webster-Ashburton treaty
-Oregon was a disputed territory.
-Britain's claim: Houston Fur Company.
-America's claim: Discovery of Columbia river; Lewis and Clark's expedition; Fur Trading Post. Also many Americans had already settled there due to Manifest Destiny.
-Oregon was divided along the 49th parallel between Britain and America.
War with Mexico
-The U.S annexation of Texas led to political problems with Mexico.
-The U.S wanted Mexico to sell California and New-Mexico territories to them but they would not give it up. They also continued to disagree on the Texas-Mexico border.
-In 1848 a Mexican army crossed the border and captured an American army patrol, killing 11. Because of this a large majority of the houses approved a war resolution.
-In 1847 Mexico City was captured by US.
-Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1848: Mexico recognized Rio Grande as the border between Texas and Mexico; and the Mexican Cession where the US paid $15 mill for California and New Mexico.
California was conquered by a couple different small American armies. They overthrew Mexican rule and declared it an independent republic.
Manifest Destiny to the South
-Southerners wanted to continue to expand and conquer to the south. Cuba was a very highly sought acquisition so they tried to take it by force but that failed. Then the US tried to secretly buy Cuba from Spain, but they refused and they had to stop anyway bc the public found out.
More land is added to New Mexico and Arizona in 1853. This land was considered semidesert and was sold to the US for 10 million.
Settlement of the Western Territories
4 more items...
-The drive to settle the continent. God provided the US continent for them to settle and it was their divine right to.
-Pull factors to move west: Economic Opportunity (California Gold Rush, Farming, Railroad work); Government Support (Homestead Act); Cultural Messaging (belief among whites that American culture was superior)
-Effects: Increase in sectional conflict (tensions over slavery); increase in racial conflict as people contended for land (white miners vs. other miners)
Chapter 11: Society, Culture and Reform 1820-1860
The Second Great Awakening
-It among educated people like the President of Yale College.
-Revivalism in New York 1823- A series of revivals started in NY where preachers promoted people to declare their faith; that only through hard work and faith could a person be saved. This appealed to people's fear of damnation. And Calvinism, or predestination, was largely challenged.
-Baptists and Methodists were the largest Protestant parties in the country.
-Millennialism- People believed there would be a Second Coming of Jesus Christ but when that day came and went they continued as if nothing happened.
-Mormons- You know
-Caused division in society between old and new; affected everyone in the country.
-It provided leadership and organized societies that drove many new social reforms.
-The idea of withdrawing from conventional society to create an ideal community, or utopia, was experimented with due to the fervor of reform ideals.
-Arts and Literature became increasingly more nationalistic.
-Transcendentalists believed that humans were fundamentally good but corrupted by society and that they should therefore strive for independence and self-reliance.
-The people who practiced this questioned the churches and argued for the discovery of one's self and god in nature. They valued individualism and supported various reforms.
-Some famous examples are Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson.
-Many people tested out the theory of "could people live out the transcendentalist ideal in a community?" at Brook Farm where there was an "artistic atmosphere".
Temperance Movement 1820
-There was a very high rate of alcohol consumption during this time. This was causing health problems; behavior problems; and a high crime rate.
-The main leaders were Protestant ministers and the founders of the "American Temperance Society".
-Reformers used moral exhortation. They tried to persuade drinkers to be abstinent.
-Maine and 12 other states outlawed the manufacture and sale of liquor.
-People were realizing the temperance measures reduced crime and poverty and increased work ethic.
-Eventually gained national success with the 18th Amendment in 1919.
-The future was in the hands of the uneducated and poor.
-Horace Mann was the main leader of this reform.
-He and the Massachusetts board of Education worked for attendance of all kids; a longer school year; and better prepared teachers.
-McGuffy made textbooks that taught academics and morals (sobriety and punctuality)
-Roman Catholics founded schools.
-Growth of private colleges= education fo young adults and adults.
Prison and Asylum Reform
-Criminals and the mentally Ill were treated horribly and living in awful conditions.
-Dorthea Dix advocated for the mentally ill by launching a crusade that would cause the building of mental hospitals.
-Thomas Gallaudet instituted a school for the blind.
-Samuel Gridley Howe instituted a school for the deaf.
-Pennsylvania was the leader in prison reforms. They built new prisons were the ideals of structure and discipline would bring about moral reform.
-Industrialization was refining families. Women had more leisure time. Cult of domesticity.
-Women became the leaders of the home, but men still relegated them to secondary roles in the anti-slavery movement.
-The leaders of this reform were many women reformers and feminists.
Women wrote public about their stance on male opposition.
-People campaigned for women's rights.
-Seneca falls Convention 1848 was were feminists met and drafted the "Declaration fo Sentiments" which was similar to the Declaration of Independence in that it asked for the recognition of women' natural rights, and equality of genders.
Cotton is King
-Cotton was the export of the South and it ran on slavery. The work of the slaves helped to fuel the Industrial Revolution.
-Cotton brought much profit and trade to America.
The steamship helped to expand the distribution of American cotton around the world.--A global market opened up and American cotton soon made up 2/3 of that market.
-The south depended on these markets for food, goods, and loans.
-Foreign slave trade was abolished but "domestic slave trade" was still practiced. Slaveowners would sell their slaves to other plantations.
-Conditions for slavery continued to get worse.
-The forced movement of slaves from the North to the South made up the largest internal migration.
-A social reform fueled by the Second Great Awakening to abolish slavery in the US. People were beginning to realize that slavery was wrong, that people did not deserve to be enslaved.
-People tried to free the slaves and send them to an African American colony, The American Colonization Society, where they were supposed to be free. This was met with strong opposition by white southern slave holders.
-The Missouri Compromise helped to ignite the antislavery movement in the North.
-Journalists, like William Lloyd Garrison who founded the antislavery newspaper
, advocated for the abolition of slavery.
-Free and escaped slaves also spoke out about slavery.
-Frederick Douglass, a former slave, published the most influential memoir of an enslaved person in history. He supported women's rights movements too.
-There is a major increase in sectionalism within the country as the North and South continue to divide over the issue of slavery.
-The Fugitive Slave Act was an example of that.
-Preachers would set up "camps" and preach to masses of people about the Bible and God.
-people would "be overcome with the spirit (we know it was false spirits)" and bark like dogs or go crazy.
-These were emotional meetings.
-People were told to be better and to do good.
-Transportation like railroads, steamships and canals make it much easier for people and goods to get to distant markets faster.
-Faster communication (telegram) connected the whole country.
-This interconnectedness allowed for the quick spread of religious teaching.
-More people started working for wages. This caused people to be more weary of morals and everyone doing good by everyone else because of how much they relied on one another. Religion was a way to make sure people would do this by teaching people to be good, honest, and loyal.
-Westward expansion cause a lot of people to move west.
-This means an expansion in democracy. There were more people to vote and a growing middle class.
-Time of the "rugged individual". Were you cared for yourself and it was up to you to be your own person.
Chapter 13: The Union in Peril 1848-1861
Causes of the civil war
-Slavery was a growing issues between the North and South. The new territories had to decide whether or not they would be slave states.
-There were Constitutional disputes over the nature of the Union and state's rights.
-Economic differences btwn North and south. (Industrialization and Internal Improvements)
-Political blunders and extremism resulted in an unnecessary war.
-The Free-soil party wanted to prevent western slavery and advocated for public land grants to small farmers and internal improvements.
-Anti-slavery people who didn't want to abolish slavery but prevent it from being legal in the West.
Was the allowing of the people who settled the territory to decide whether or not that state was a slave state or a free one.
Compromise of 1850
-Called for California to be a free state and new Mexico to be split and decide by Popular Sovereignty. -It bought the Union some time and added to the North's power and deepened the political debate. -The Five parts: a stricter fugitive slave law; California’s entry into the Union as a free state; a boundary drawn between New Mexico and Texas, stopping slavery in its tracks; the outlaw of the slave trade in Washington, DC.; and the implementation of popular sovereignty (allowing the states themselves to decide their policy on slavery) in the Western territories. -It was an example of expansion leading to sectionalism.
Fugitive Slave Law
-Purpose was to track down escaped slaves hiding in the North and return them to the South.
-This drove a wedge between the two sides of the country.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
-Written be Harriet Beecher Stowe who was born to a abolitionist family.
-Told the story of a slave named Tom and revealed how brutal the life of a slave was.
-Contributed to the increase in sectional tension between the North and South.
-Southerners rejected this book due to the "untruths" it told, but the white Northerners saw this as fuel to the sectionalist fire.
-Set into motion of political novels and conversations of religion and human bondage.
Kansas Nebraska Act 1854
-Created two new territories: Kansas and Nebraska where popular sovereignty would determine the fate of the states.
-Repealed the Missouri Compromise.
-Instituted by Stephen A Douglas
-Sparked a struggle between slaveholders and anti-slavery factions. This fighting resulted in the territory being called
-A major party realignment occurred--Democrats vs Republicans
Dred Scott vs Sanford 1857
-Dred Scott was a slave who sued for his freedom on the basis that he was a citizen living on free soil.
-The Supreme Court denied him his freedom because: he was not a citizen of the US so he couldn't bring his case to the federal court; Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional; and Scott was someone's property and the government couldn't interfere with a person's property.
-This delighted Southern Democrats and infuriated the Northern Republicans.
1 more item...