Inheritance and Gene Expression (Bacterial DNA Replication # (Gene…
Inheritance and Gene Expression
Bacterial DNA Replication
"The process by which DNA directs the synthesis of proteins.
Single-Strand binding protein
DNA Pol III
DNA Pol I
Basic Principles of Transcription and Translation
"carries a genetic from the DNA to the protein-synthesizing machinery of the cell."
"The synthesis of RNA using information in the DNA."
"The synthesis of a polypeptide using the information in the mRNA."
"Molecular complexes that facilitate the orderly linking of amino acids into polypeptide chains."
"The initial RNA transcript from any gene, including those specifying RNA that is not translated into protein."
Genes program protein synthesis via genetic messages in the form of messenger RNA.
*"The genetic instructions for a polypeptide chain are written in the DNA as a series of non-overlapping, three nucleotide words in mRNA, which is then translated in to a chain of amino acids.
"Provides the pattern, or template, for the sequence of nucleotides in an RNA transcript."
*"The non-template DNA strand
*"Correct way of reading (transcribing), DNA to RNA.
Molecular Components of Transcription
"Enzyme that pries the two strands of DNA apart and joins together RNA nucleotides complementary to the DNA template strand."
"DNA sequence where RNA polymerase attaches and initiates transcription."
"The sequence that signals the end of transcription."
"The stretch of DNA downstream from the promoter that is transcribed into an RNA Molecule."
"The nucleotide where RNA polymerase actually begins synthesis of the mRNA."
"A collection of proteins mediate the binding of RNA polymerase and the initiation of transcription."
Transcription Initiation Complex
"The whole complex of transcription factors and RNA polymerase II bind to it."
"Role of transcription factors and a crucial promoter DNA sequence in forming the initiation complex at a eukaryotic promoter."
"Where large portions of the RNA molecules are removed and the remaining portions are reconnected."
"The noncoding segments of nucleic acid that lie between coding regions."
"They are eventually expressed, usually by amino acid sequences."
Making a primary Transcript
RNA Polymerase II transcribes introns and exons from the DNA
mRNA molecule that enters the cytoplasm is an abridged version.
"The removal of introns is accomplished by a large complex made of proteins and small RNA's."
"RNA Molecules that function as enzymes."
"A modular architecture consisting of discrete structural and functional regions."
"The particular nucleotide triplet that base-pairs to a specific mRNA codon."
"Enzyme that is able to bind to all 20 different amino acids."
Structure of Ribosome
"The Flexible base pairing at this codon position."
"Holds the tRNA carrying the next amino acid to be added to the chain."
"Discharged tRNA's leave from this site(Exit)."
"Holds the tRNA carrying the growing polypeptide chain."
"They enable a cell to rapidly make many copies of a polypeptide."
"Changes in a single nucleotide pair of a gene."
"Are responsible for the huge diversity of genes found among organisms because its the ultimate source of new genes."
"Which has no observable effect on the phenotype."
"Substitutions that change one amino acid to another one."
"Causes translation to be terminated prematurely."
"Are additions or losses of nucleotide pairs in a gene."
"Occurs whenever the number of nucleotides inserted or deleted is not a multiple of three."
"Interact with DNA in ways that cause mutations."
Double Helix Shaped
Origins of Replication
Short stretches of DNA that have a specific sequence of nucleotides.
Enzyme that unravel and untwist the double helix at the replication forks.
An enzyme that helps relieve this strain by breaking, swiveling, and rejoining DNA strands.
"Eukaryotic DNA is precisely combined with a large amount of protein. Fits into the nucleus through an elaborate, multilevel system of packing."
"Visible as irregular clumps with a light microscope."
"Proteins that are responsible for the first level of DNA packing in chromatin."
"The basic unit of DNA packing; the "string" between beads is called linker DNA."