Positive praise can be very uplifting for the student but it has to be balanced with critique. Studies show for every 4th praise, offer one critique. Praise can be verbal or physical, like a pat on the back, a fist bump or a head nod. Sally prefers the fist bump. In fact, attention and praise are so well established as reinforcers that their use is seldom questioned in applied behavior analysis. Attention is regularly identified as a reinforcer in functional analyses (e.g. Berg, Peck, Wacker, Harding, McComas, Richman, & Brown 2000; Durand & Carr; 1991; Meyer, 1999).