Chapter 8:Thinking skills (8.3 Critical thinking (Steps in Critical…
Chapter 8:Thinking skills
Thinking skills are the cognitive processes, which involve the application of mental and intellectual abilities to make sense of experience.
8.2 The Concept of Right Brain and Left Brain
The right side of the brain is more dominant in performing tasks of emotion and creativity e.g. facial recognition, expression and emotions, music, colours, images, arts and intuition.
The left side of the brain performs better tasks of logic, language, critical thinking, analytical thinking, numbers, reasoning and references.
8.3 Critical thinking
The ability to think critically involves attitude, knowledge & skills.
The effective way to apply critical thinking requires factors and abilities
Identification of problems
Generation of means and alternatives to address the issues
Gathering and organizing information
Identification of unstated values and assumptions
Data interpretation and analysis
Data evaluation and appraisal
Identification of logical relationships between propositions
Conclusions and generalizations of thoughts and ideas
Testing and validating the conclusions and generalizations
Application of the new thought or idea and relating them to specific things and qualities in everyday life
Characteristics of a Critical Thinker
Inquisitive, critical, ask pertinent questions and raise problems in a clear, well articulated and precise manner.
Seeks to understand issues by gathering and assessing relevant facts and information.
Comes out with well thought and validated conclusions and solutions.
Explores all possible alternatives, their impacts and consequences, and repercussions.
Communicates and consults with others to find the best possible solutions.
Importance of Critical Thinking
Helps us in making the right, well reasoned and informed decision; avoiding the trap of making biased, distorted, partial, uninformed, or downright prejudiced decisions.
Helps us in making the best possible decisions through a rigorous, systematic and holistic process and approach.
Enables us to consider and weigh all possible options, mitigate the risks of making wrong or inappropriate decisions.
Intellectual Standards for Critical Thinking
Clearness of thinking that makes an idea or a statement easier to understand
How true the idea/statement is
How specific and detailed the idea/ statement is
How is the idea/statement connected to the issue
To what extent does the idea/statement deal with the complexities of the issue
Inclusiveness of an idea or a statement
Whether an idea/statement makes sense and consistent with our previously articulated thoughts/statements
Fair, objective and unbiased in our thinking
Steps in Critical Thinking
8.4 Creative thinking
The thinking analysis and assessment enables one to raise the thinking to a higher level.
Critical thinkers seek to improve thinking, in three phases:
Thinking upgrading (thinking outcome).
Importance of Creative Thinking
Creative thinking opens us up to many possibilities i.e. inventions and innovations.
Creative people come up with novel ideas, new ways and approaches that have numerous impacts on invention, the way we look at things, solve problems, make decisions, create and communicate new ideas and knowledges.
Characteristics of Creative People
Not afraid to take risks
Have a good sense of humour
Have high level of curiosity
Sensitive to beauty
Steps in Creative Thinking
Defer judgement when looking for ideas
Think of and come up with all possible ideas and options
Note down, list down and record all ideas in a proper written form
Constantly elaborate and improve on thoughts or ideas
Give some space and time for our mind to come up with ideas and nurture them
8.5 Lateral Thinking
An unconventional problem solving method, which employs an indirect and creative technique.
Lateral thinking promotes the use of reasoning and ideas that may not seem to be relevant and appropriate in the beginning.
Lateral Thinking Tools
Idea generating tools
Used to break the status quo and existing thinking patterns by challenging and provoking ideas and generating alternatives.
These tools are used to assist in focusing on where to search for new ideas
These tools are used to manage the idea output and maximize the value received from idea output for the long term
To strenghten ideas by looking at the viability of the ideas, taking into account the current and future constraints,resources, and support.