SEED PLANTS II: ANGIOSPERMS (EUDICOTS (BASAL EUDICOTS (CARYOPHYLLALES…
SEED PLANTS II: ANGIOSPERMS
Double fertilization is the process in which the second sperm cell fuses with the polar nuclei og the megagametophyte producing the endosperm nucleus. closed carpels develops into a fruit that encloses the embryos as they develop into seeds.
CLASSIFICATION OF FLOWERING PLANT
have only one cotyledon on each embryo, leaves have parallel venation, vascular bundles are distributed throughout the stem, flowers of monocots have their parts arranged in groups or multiples of three: three sepals, three petals, three stamens and three carpels.
have two cotyledon and reticulate venation in the leaves, vascular bundles occur in only one ring in the stem, flowers parts occurs in sets of five but rarely occur in set of three.
contain the living descendents of several groups that originated while angiosperms were still a young clade. their pollen grains have only single germination pore so they are uniaperturate as well as other basal angiosperms and monocots. eudicots have three germination pores.
alismatales contains many aquatic herbs and aquarium plants; liliales are monocots with large colorful flowers; asparagales carpels fused side by side starting at their bases, the fused sides being called septa; dioscoreales have petiolate, broad leaves with reticulate venation and are easily mistaken for dicots.
include most foods; sepals and petals are of little importance and are reduced to bristle-like structures. three carpels are fused together but three stigma remain separate.
differ from other monocots in that they tend to have large, showy flowers pollinated by insects, birds, or bats. many flowers are bilaterally symmetrical; three carpels are fused completely.
Have scattered vascular bundles; leaves occur only near the shoot apex; trunks are prostrate in few species; have simple leaf that are fully expanded and torn by wind into either pinnate pattern or palmate one.
consist of several small orders and two large groups; small orders have few members but great economic importance. the two large clades are the fabids and the malvids.
contains plants such as sunflower, periwinkle; asterids exploit very specialized pollinators that recognize complex floral patterns; many are medically important; many asterids have iridoid compounds; they have sympetalous flowers; they always have just a few stamens not more than the number of petal lobes; stamens alternate with petals.
produced a group of water-soluble pigments called betalains; endosperm develops only a little and then fails to continue growing; nucellus cells proliferate and form a nutritive tissue called perisperm which surrounds the developing embryo.
most of these plants are parasitic; these mistletoes have chlorophyll and are photosynthetic; they are just hemiparasitic but some are homoparasitic have no chlorophyll at all.