Central Nervous System Valeria Castaneda Period 7 …
Central Nervous System Valeria Castaneda Period 7
Major Parts and Functions of Spinal Cord
Function: Two way conduction pathway to and from brain. Major reflex center also relays messages between the brain and the rest of the body.
Structure: Glistening white continuation of the brain stem which is approximately 17 inches long. Attached to vertebral column.
Dorsal root of spinal nerve: Fibers of the cell bodies's sensory neurons enter through the dorsal root.
Ventral root of spinal nerve: Axons of the motor neurons from ventral horns are sent out through ventral root.
Dorsal root ganglion: The fibers from the cell bodies's sensory neurons are found here which is an enlarged area.
Central Canal: Surrounded by gray matter and contains CSF.
White Matter: Paler tissue which consists of nerve fibers and it's myelin sheaths.
Posterior or Dorsal horn of gray matter: Two posterior projections of the gray matter of the spinal cord.
Lateral horn of gray matter:
Anterior or ventral horn of gray matter: Two anterior projections of the gray matter of the spinal cord.
Pia mater: follows control of brain spinal cord action. almost transaparent layer.
Spinal Nerve: Carries motor, automatic, and sensory signals between spinal cord and brain.
Arachnoid mater: thin membrane which lacks blood vessels and has spider-like collagen and elastic fibers.
Dura mater: outermost layer, attached to periosteum, many blood vessels and nerve: dense irregular, connective tissue.
Major Part of the Brain
Cerebellum: "little brain". function coordinate voluntary movement and regulates it for example posture, balance, and coordination.
Diencephalon: consists of thalamus and hypothalamus. superior to brain stem and surrounded by cerebellum.
Cerebrum: largest part. function: control all movement divided into the four lobes.
Brain Stem: consists of medulla oblongata, and pons. function: control over messages sent to brain which will later go to the rest of the money.
Thalamus: Consists of thalamus and hypothalamus. Thalamus's function is relay station for sensory impulses to cerebral cortex. Hypothalamus's function is to control body temperature and control regulation eating and drinking (water balance)
Mensnges: for protecting and covering. Consists of three layers dura mater, arachnoid mater, and Pia mater.
Medulla Oblongata: function is to regulate cardiac, vasomotor, and respiratory centers.
Major Functions of the Nervous System
analyzes sensory information, stores aspects, and makes decisions about appropriate behaviors. (thinking part of the brain.
detects changes (stimuli) in the body and outside the body.
may respond to stimuli by initiating muscle contractions or glandular secretions (muscles and glands are called effectors).
The Layers of the Meninges
outermost layer, attached to periosteum, many blood vessels and nerve: dense irregular, connective tissue.
follows control of brain spinal cord action. almost transaparent layer.
thin membrane which lacks blood vessels and has spider-like collagen and elastic fibers.
Lobes and Functions
Temporal: above ears (controls smelling and hearing) function: hearing and smelling
Frontal: forehead, function: language comprehension. controls voluntary actions of specific muscles or groups of muscles on the opposite side.
Parietal: top sides (recipes four touch and proportion). function: receive impulse for touch, pain, proprioception, and temperature. location: behind central sulcui
Occipital: back, controls vision. function: recognition/visual
Classifications of Neurons
Unipolar : axon terminals in Central Nervous System (CNS) and cell bodies are in ganglia.
Multipolar : most neurons of CNS are used and processed / has several dendrites and only has one axon
Bipolar: one main dendrite and axon/ found in special sense organs.
Functional Classifications of Neuron
Motor or Efferent Neurons: transmit motor nervve impulses from Central Nervous System (CNS) to effector.
Interneurons: form links between other neurons.
Sensory or Afferent Neurons: Transmit sensory impulses towards the Central Nervous System (CNS)
Spaces and Ventricles
Third Ventricle: Located by the two halves of the brain, sends and receives messages from the lateral vertices, and contains cerebrospinal fluid.
Fourth Ventricle: Upper portion of medulla, diamond shaped.
Lateral Ventricles: largest cavities and contains cerebrospinal fluid
Cerebral Aqueduct: Connects third and fourth ventricle and cerebral spinal fluid flows.
Subdural Space: area between dura mater and fluid filled.
Subarachnoid Space: area between arachnoid mater and pia mater filled with cerebrospinal fluid (provide nutrients).
Tissues (Structure and Function of a Neuron
Cell Body: Contains the nucleus and other organelles.
Dendrites: Receive portions, short, tapered, and highly branched.
Motor or Efferent Neurons: Transmit motor nerve impulses from Central Nervous System (CNS) to effectors.
Sensory or Afferent Neurons: Transmit sensory impulses towards the Central Nervous System (CNS). These neurons have specialized receptor ends at tips of dendrites or the dendrites are in contact with the receptors in the skin or sensory organs. Some of these neurons are bipolar but most are unipolar.
Interneurons: Multipolar Neurons in the Central Nervous System (CNS) which form links between other neurons.
Nerve Tissue is made up of neurons (nerve cell) and neuroglia
During action potential, nerve impulses are transmitted.
If a strong enough depolarization occurs, threshold potential is reached an impulse is sent down axon.
K+ rushes out of neuron after Na+ rushes in which causes a depolarization of the membrane back to resting potential.
Strong stimulation or nerve impulse causes Na+ gates to open -> Na+ rushes into the cell causing depolarization
Alcohol is taken by drinking.
It is also known as beer, wine, liquor, whiskey, vodka, rum, and gin.
Temporarily produces a sense of calmness and a drowsy effect.
Affects areas in the brain involved in memory formation, decision making and impulse control. GABA inhibitory neurotransmitter and glutamate neurotransmitter.
It is also known as speed, meth, chalk, ice, and crystal.
Person will feel a sense of relief and pleasure.
Methamphetamine is a drug that has strong effects on brain and nervous system.
Dophamine neurotransmitter, transporters start working in reverse, activity pumping in dophamine out cell into the synapse. Overestimates cell.
It is also known as pot, herb, grass, widow, ganjia, hash.
A person using this drug will feel calm and stress-free and will have slow response.
Marijuana is smoked as a cigarette (aka joint), in a joint, and a bong.
Dophamine and inhibitory neurotransmitter. Cannaboinoid receptors turn off the release of inhibition, dopamine can be released.
Cocaine is taken by snorting, injecting, or smoking.
Also known as coke, c, snow, white horse, blow, flake, and crack.
Causes person to get fidgety, speeds up activity of brain
Dophamine neurotransmitter, transmitters become blocked and dopamine binds again to the receptors overestimating the cell.
The effects are nausea, respiratory failure, strokes, and seizures.
It also is known as smack, H, skag, junk, and black tar.
Dophamine and inhibitory neurotransmitters. Body's naturals opiates activate opiate receptors. When inhibitory neurotransmitters are released they are shut down. Dophamine can be released without inhibition.
Heroine is a drug taken by injecting, snorting, or smoking.
The Neurons with opiate receptors are in parts of brain responsible for transmission of pain signals, stress response, and emotional attachment.
Drug which comes from poppy plant.
Person feels awake and evoking a startle response to unexpected stimulus
May inhibit them and excite them.