(ERA in UK) Chapter 2 : Formulating the problem :star: - Coggle Diagram
(ERA in UK) Chapter 2 : Formulating the problem
2.1 The importance of good problem definition
Why problem definition important?
It is required for an effective risk management and any decisions in environmental risk.
What happen if the problem is fail to define?
Failure to formulate the problem clearly and unambiguous will result in a loss focus and inappropriate output.
Who have important role to formulate the problem?
The stakeholders as their early involvement will tend to make risk management decisions more effective and durable.
What are the refence being used?
The ERA is completed by reference to legislation that may have specific requirements to be discussed with the regulators.
What is meant by framing a problem?
It is a critical need to establish basic information about the risk of what to, whom, where and when.
2.6 Prioritising the risks
Why risk prioritising needs to be transparent?
The challenge of comparing different risks and the weightings analysts may apply.
What is carry out at this stage?
Evaluate source-pathway-receptor (S-P-R) relationships by working through a conceptual model.
Exploring whether exposures may be direct or indirect.
Determining the integrity of the barriers in order to minimize environmental exposure.
What type of risk considered for further analysts?
The high priority risks will go for further analysis or take into account for immediate risk management.
Why low priority risk not entirely discarded from the process remainder?
Risks screened out may need to be revisited because of the inter-relationships that exist between risks.
2.3 Developing a conceptual model
2.3.1 Source-pathway-receptor (S-P-R)
What is meant by source-pathway-receptor (S-P-R) in conceptual model?
It refer to features of the environment that will be value and that could be harmed. It also present the hypothesised relationships between the source (S) of a hazard, the pathways (P) by which exposure might occur and the receptors (R).
How the linkages between these components of a risk can be set out?
Set out in tabular form with reference to a schematic or conceptual model as this approach has proven flexible across a wide range of environmental risks.
Why this linkage is important at this stage?
To represent the scope of the problem, clarify the environmental components at risk and set the boundaries of the risk assessment.
What is meant by D-P-S-I-R model (Drivers-Pressures-State-Impacts-Responses)?
It is an alternative conceptual framework used in assessing and managing environmental risks especially at the policy level.
How D-P-S-I-R conceptual model is different with S-P-R model?
It is similar to S-P-R but it is important to specifically consider the likelihood of the impacts occurring when characterizing the nature of hazards and evaluating the response options.
2.3.2 Factors controlling the hazard
What should be take into account when developing a conceptual model?
It is important to be aware of engineered, natural and human events as well as the processes that affect the risk.
What are the example of possible influencing factors?
Factors such as soil moisture, chemical concentration and population growth can control the timing, intensity, spatial extent and duration of hazardous events.
What will happen if the influencing factors not considered at early stage?
The difficulties may arise in conducting meaningful assessments and selecting practical options.
2.3.3 Scenario building
What is meant by scenario building?
It is a complement to the development of a risk assessment conceptual model that is begin to be assessed.
What are the function of scenario building?
Can be used to explore future risks, opportunities, strengths and weaknesses of current strategy and policy approaches.
To provide a long-term vision independent of political timetables.
Can help to identify critical decision points and strategic
Able to develop a clear context for future strategies and polices.
2.4 Planning the assessment
2.4.1 Stakeholder and public participation and engagement
What trigger the public on environmental problems?
Awareness of environmental problems and environment quality to their health.
Consultation of environmental legislation to the local and national residents.
Public discussion, debate and reflection about the risk assessment alongside the analysis of risk for them to become familiar with technical issues. (Participatory risk assessment)
Why assessment planning is needed?
To outlines the data requirements for risk assessment and the methods needed for
data collection and synthesis.
What should be considered before assessment planning?
The selection of assessment endpoints and the time period and spatial scale to avoid ambiguous endpoint assessment.
How assessment planning work?
A decision should be made on which data are important for the analysis.
The plan may describe sophisticated assessment techniques that
could be conducted depending on the results of initial work.
If the information collected is adequate and indicates that a stressor has no known toxicity so further analysis may be unnecessary.
2.2 Framing the question
Why risk questions are useful in risk assessments?
To understand the features of an environmental issue better as well as estimating the significance of the risk.
Who are eligible to provide the risk questions?
Various of stakeholders including organized stakeholders and public are best informed the risk questions.
How they can come out with good risk questions and influence risk decisions?
The stakeholders need to participate in decision processes early so that they can understand and question the risk assessments being undertaken.
2.5 Screening the risks
What is the function of risk screening?
To determine which risks should be investigated in greater detail using techniques suitable to the nature of the risk and quality of the evidence base.
To rationalize why some risks may not be investigated further.
To identify risks for immediate action without need for further investigation.
How important the risk screening?
The management decision and their success in managing outcomes could be affected if highlighting uncertainty risk.
What should the risk assessors do in this stage?
The risk assessors may develop an early view whether they have sufficient data to support a quantitative assessment of the risk and if necessary, additional data to support assessment might required.
What are the types of screening tools exist?
There are wide range of risk screening tools exist which mostly are qualitative and semi-quantitative.
How the screening exercise is conducted?
The focus is usually on those risk deemed insignificant so those higher priority risk or with significant uncertainty can be examined more detail.
Why risk screening are designed to be precautionary?
The uncertainty remains about the probability and consequences of harm hence risks are escalated to the next tier of analysis as a precaution.
What is meant by a conceptual model?
It is a representative schematic of the boundaries of the problem under consideration.
What are the characteristics of conceptual model?
Adverse consequences cannot occur unless the environmental feature that wish to protect is suffering exposure to a hazard.
The relationship between hazards, exposure and environmental features is setting out before analyze them in depth.
The risk management options to be evaluated is specified within the conceptual model.
Can be highly specific and concentrate on just one facet of a large project or it may be possible to embody the entire risk in one model.