The Early Modern Age. Humanism and the Renaissance, , imagen, imagen ,…
The Early Modern Age. Humanism and the Renaissance
The Early Modern Age
Began in 1453 with the Fall of Constantinople and ended with the French Revolution in 1789.
Intensified commercial activity
the increase in agricultural production resulted an excess of food produced.
The surplus products were sold in the city markets.
Merchants or traders travelled in search of new markets,
The expansion of craftsmanship
products were made in workshops, which were controlled by associations of craftsmen called guilds.
Increased agricultural production
there was an increase in the amount of land under cultivation.
there were no technological advances
the three-field system was maintained
consisted of dividing the area of cultivated land into three sections and rotating the crops each year.
One section was uncultivated to rest and recover the nutrients
The main crops were cereals
New products were brought to Europe.
These included precious metals, foods and spices.
Development of mercantile capitalism
An economic system in which capital (money, raw materials, tools, workshops...) belonged to private owners
Economic growth resulted in the development of banking
started changing money and looking after the money and precious metals of their clients
With large funds available, they were able to increase the range of services they offered
The bankers lent money in exchange for returning the same amount plus an additional amount, called interest.
the bankers became rich
The monarchs at the time also asked the banks for loans to cover the costs of running their states.
Banking played a vital role in the new system, known as mercantile capitalism, by financing the trading companies.
Creating new forms of payment:
the bill of exchange was created
With the bill of exchange it was no longer necessary to travel with cash, which was not safe.
In people's homes and the domestic system was created.
Cities grew, especially those on trade routes or with important ports
an urban society developed
This became one of the defining characteristics of the Early Modern Age.
Society continued to be divided into different social groups called classes
The priviledged class consisted of the nobility and the clergy.
They were a minority, but owned most of the land
They were the only ones who had access to high political positions
they didn´t pay taxes, and they were judged by special tribunals.
They lived in their castles in the countryside or in palaces in the city.
The unprivileged class, also called commoners
consisted of the majority of the population
They paid numerous taxes and did not have access to high political positions
This group was divided into various sub-groups
the largest group
They were serfs of the feudal lord or noble
They had to pay them rent or a part of their harvest.
For this reason, many of them went to the cities where they had more freedom.
were the city inhabitants.
They were not ruled by a feudal lord.
This social group increased in number, became wealthier and gained more political influence during the Early Modern Age.
There were significant differences within this group:
The upper bourgeoisie were important merchants, bankers and officials.
They lived in richly decorated urban palaces
Together with the city nobles, they formed the ruling class, the most powerful and influential group
Some of the upper bourgeoisie became wealthier than the nobles themselves.
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The bourgeoisie gradually gained more rights, but did not reach the same level as the nobility until the end of the Early Modern Age.
the bourgeoisie demanded an end to the privileges enjoyed by the nobility and the clergy and not to pay so many taxes and have access to all political positions.
The petite bourgeoisie
were small merchants, less important officials, all types of artisans, artists, servants and labourers.
They formed the largest group in the cities.
They lived in humble houses in buildings with several floors.
There was also a marginalised social group that consisted of beggar and vagabonds that lived on charity
Some social groups protested for their rights.
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Before this period, people ate with their hands
It was not considered advisable to bathe or wash because it was believed that water spread disease.
In the Early Modern Age women were considered less important than men
They didn't wash themshelves because it was belived that water caused diseases, religiously.