Core 1:Changing Population - Coggle Diagram
Core 1:Changing Population
Population and economic development patterns
Population: It is the total number of people living in a given area at a given time.
Population distribution: It refers to the spread of a population in a given area. It could be sparsely, moderately or densely distributed.
Population density: It is the average number of people living in a given area per squared kilometers.
The general pattern shows that population distribution is not uniform across the planet. Generally, most settlements are located along the coastal areas.
Dense to moderately populated areas include:
South – East Asia (India, China, Indonesia, Japan etc.) which accounts for about a third of the world’s total population
Western and parts of Central Europe (Spain, Portugal, UK, Germany)
West and Eastern Africa, including Southern Africa
Coastal parts of South America and Southern areas of N. America
Sparsely populated areas include
North America(Canada, including Greenland, which part of Europe)
The forest and mountainous areas of South America (Amazon forest)
North and Central Africa (due to the Sahara and the Congo forest)
Northern Asia (Eastern Russia, Northern China etc)
Northern Australia (mostly desert)
Physical and human factors that affecting population distribution
soils and vegetation
Transport and Communication
Reasons for such rapid increase in the number of megacities include
Economic growth, as a result of industrialization leading to an increase in demand for labor in mines and manufacturing sectors.
Natural increase due to the youthful nature of urban population resulting in high birth rates
Rural Urban Migration, especially in LEDCs
Changing population and places
STAGE 1– High Stationary or Pre-Industrial
Birth Rate High
Death Rate High
Natural Increase Low
Fertility Rate High
Life expectancy is low
Infant Mortality Rate High
Examples: Various isolated communities in the least developed regions of Africa; war-torn regions (eg Afghanistan, Sudan, Angola); political hotspots (eg North Korea)
Reasons for High Birthrate:
Little or no family planning
Parents have many children because of high infant mortality
Many children are needed to work the farm(cheap source of labor)
Children are a sign of virility
Some religious beliefs and cultural traditions encourage large families
Lack of education, meaning many girls do not go to school, thereby getting married at an early age. This leads to high fertility rate
Women not having a say in the number of children they can have
Lack of material ambition – women therefore see many children as a source of ‘wealth’.
Reasons for High Death rate:
Disease and plague (e.g. bubonic, cholera, kwashiorkor)
Famine , uncertain food supplies, and poor diet
Poor hygiene/sanitation, no piped clean water or sewage disposal
Poor housing, thereby exposing children to mosquitoes and subsequently malaria
Poor access to medical health care, including medical personnel in both urban and rural areas
Poor transport network, meaning doctors/nurses are not able to reach rural areas to treat basic diseases such as malaria, cholera and other infant killer diseases
STAGE 2– Early Expanding or Early Industrial
falling death rates
Natural Increase is rising steadily
Fertility Rate High
Infant Mortality Rate High
Life expectancy is rising steadily
Example : Sub-Saharan Africa
Other Characteristics: Characterizes post-industrial societies.
Most of the population is rural, but urbanization is increasing rapidly. Dependency load begins to increase rapidly as the young cohort (%<15 yrs old) begins to dominate the proportion of the population.
Reasons for falling death rates
improved medical care e.g. vaccinations , hospitals, doctors, new drugs, and scientific inventions
Improved sanitation and water supply
Improvements in food production in terms of quality and quantity
Improved transport to move food and doctors
STAGE 3– Late Expanding or Late Industrial
falling birth rate
Life expectancy is high and rising
low death rate
total population growing, but slowly
Examples: India and Brazil
Reasons for falling birth rates
Family Planning utilized; contraceptives, abortions, sterilization, and other government incentives adopted
A lower infant mortality rates means less pressure to have children in the hope that if some die some would survive
Increased mechanization and industrialization means less need for labour
Increased desire for material possessions and less desire for large families, due to high cost of raising children
Emancipation of women, meaning women have a say in the number of children they want to have in a marriage, they can decide at what age and to whom they want to marry etc.
Education of women, hence they spend marry years in school and know the consequences of having unwanted children.
Government policies to reduce birth rate. eg. China’s One-Child Policy.
STAGE 4– Low Stationary or Low Fluctuating
birth rate is low
death rate has fallen
total population is high and stationary
life expectancy is very high
Example: United States and Canada
It is an increase in population due to increase birth rate over death rate.
Natural Increase=Birth rate – death rate