Biology Topic 4 Bioenergetics , photosynthesis rate temperature graph , …
Biology Topic 4 Bioenergetics
Factors Affecting the Rate of Photosynthesis
Increases the rate of photosynthesis (up to a point) because there's more energy for a chemical reaction. When it plateaus this means there's another limiting factor which could be carbon dioxide concentration, temperature or amount of chlorophyll.
Whilst temperature of the environment increases so does the rate of photosynthesis (up to a point) as there's more energy. Photosynthesis is a enzyme controlled reaction meaning if the temperature gets too high the enzymes denature.
Carbon Dioxide Concentration
Carbon dioxide is needed for the production of glucose. The rate of photosynthesis will increase when there's a higher concentration of carbon dioxide.
Amount of Chlorophyll
Chlorophyll is a photosynthetic pigment that absorbs light. It allows the reaction between water and glucose to take place (photosynthesis).
Plants use the glucose produced in photosynthesis in a variety of ways: respiration, stored as insoluble starch, fats or oils for storage, cellulose for cell walls, combine with nitrate minerals to make amino acids for protein synthesis.
Conditions in greenhouses designed to reduce limiting factors to get a bigger yield:
Provide optimum temperatures for maximum growth.
Enhances the natural sunlight especially overnight and on cludy days.
Extra Carbon Dioxide
Gas can be pumped inside the greenhouse.
Growers must balance the cost of these extras with the profit from selling.
An exothermic reaction that is always occurring in living organisms.
To enable muscles to contract.
To keep a steady body temperature.
To build larger molecules from smaller ones.
Anaerobic and Aerobic Respiration
is respiration without oxygen. In intense exercise the cells are respiring so fast that they don't have time to get oxygen from the bloodstream. This energy lasts for a short amount of time. Glucose is partially oxidised to produce lactic acid. This makes muscles fatigued.
is respiration with oxygen. Occurs inside the mitochondria continuously. Glucose is oxidised to transfer the energy the organism needs for it to perform its function.
Anaerobic Respiration in Plant and Yeast Cells
This process is important for the process of making bread and alcohol.
Metabolism is the sum of all reactions in a cell or the body.
Includes: respiration; conversion of glucose to starch, glycogen and starch; formation of lipid molecules; the use of glucose and nitrate ions; and breakdown of excess proteins to form urea for excretion.
Response to Exercise
Heart rate increases
from the heart pumping more oxygenated blood quicker to the muscle tissues and cells.
Breathing rate increases
This increases the amount of oxygen getting to muscles.
Lactic acid builds up in muscle cells.
Blood flows through the muscles and transports the lactic acid to the liver.
The liver oxidises the lactic acid and converts it back to glucose.