TOK Cambridge Book p: 55-70 - Coggle Diagram
TOK Cambridge Book p: 55-70
Personal Access To Knowledge
Semantic Memories (Memories of Facts)
Episodic Memories (Memories from your own Life)
they are implicit (hidden) procedural memories
Example: Tune a piano
Ambiguity and Vagueness
Ambiguity: when a word, statement, image or situation can have more than one meaning or interpretation
Example: "Mashrafe Mortaza has raised his bats. (Sport term or an animal)
Vagueness: When something is not clear or has no distinct boundaries, is imprecise and defies exact definition.
Example: Definition of games
Most of our memories are transient unless we use them regularly
Transient: temporary, fleeting
An opposite Situation Hyperthymesia:
a condition in which a person can remember an abnormally large number of their own life experiences in detail
Absent-mindedness: inattentiveness that leads to lack of memory
Blocking: When there is an obstruction to your ability to recall information.
Misattribution:To give credit to the wrong person or source, whether deliberately or mistakenly.
Plagiarism: Passing off someone else's idea or work as your own
This can cause major problems in the academic field.
Misinformation, Disinformation and Fake News
Quote from Hillary Clinton: "It's now clear that so,called fake news can have real-world consequences."
Misiformation: incorrect informations,unintentionally false information.
Disinformation: Intentionally false or inaccurate information spread as an act of deception.
Dissemination of disinformation via Fake news, propagandas etc.on social and traditional mediais like a echo chamber.
It creates an environment where there is no place for alternative ideas
Pre-electoral disinformation campaigns in India via social medias such as Whatsapp etc.
Viral: spreading widely and quickly
Propaganda: The deliberate manipulation of information in order to influence what people think, usually for political purposes:
Confirmation Bias: The tendency to believe evidence that supports your opinions and ignore evidence that are against your beliefs, opnions.
Bot: an automated computer programme
Via bot accounts governments, tribes etc. can easily spread disinformation which support their own world view or interests.
Fake News: false, often sensationalstories, spread under the guise of news reporting.
Possibly the first large-scale fake news story was published by New York Sun
It is about life on the moon.
There are twelve top tips for spotting fake news.
The Question of Trust
Peer: a person of equal standing, usually a member of your own tribe
Expert: a person with specialist skills and/or knowledge
!! We all like sources that agree with us, but it does not mean they are reliable.
Fake news throw suspicion on all news and leaves people not knowing who or what can be trusted.
The Importance of Expertise:
Competency: capability; the possession of sufficient knowledge or skills
Expertise: specialised skills and knowledge
In Tom Nichol's book "THe Death of Expertise" it is mentioned that people believe their personal opinions hold equal weight to the opinion of experts.
People should trust experts in their fields and the information provided by knowledge communities.
However, this trust should not be blind.