Civil Rights Throughout US History - Coggle Diagram
Civil Rights Throughout US History
The Civil Rights Movement
July 2, 1964
Civil Rights Act of 1964 signed
Executive Order 11246, 1964: prohibits discriminating against employees on the basis of race, color, religion, gender
Regents of University of California v. Bakke (1978): affirmative action is constitutional as long as schools consider other factors
13th amendment in 1865: abolishes slavery
May 17, 1954
Brown v. Board of Education: racial segregation in schools is unconstitutional
The Voting Rights Act of 1965
Executive Order 8802, 1941: prohibits discrimination in the workplace
Executive Order 9981, 1948: equality of treatment and opportunity in the armed forces
The Civil Rights Era 24th amendment: 24th Amendment "which banned poll taxes as a requirement for voting"
Supreme Court Cases
Roe V Wade - Gives woman reproductive/abortion rights through Privacy laws
Reed V Reed first time 14th Amendment is used in Woman's Rights case
Phillips v. Martin Marietta - No Gender discrimination when hiring employees
United States V Virginia - at the Virginia Military Institute's (one of largest in the country) they struck down the male-only admissions policy
Corning Glass Works v. Brennan - Equal pay case
Stanton v. Stanton - Equal Education ruling
Webster v. Reproductive Health Services - Upheld that states could not deny abortion rights and access
Planned Parenthood v. Casey - Gave Woman more rights to abortions, while requiring minors to get consent of one or more legal guardians
Equal Pay Act of 1963
Title IX of the Education Acts, 1972
women's suffrage --> 19th amendment: "“The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.”
Freedom of Religion
SCOTUS ruled there could be no prayer initiated by public schools within public schools.
Engel v. Vitale
Wisconsin v. Yoder
SCOTUS ruled it was okay for the Amish to not send their children to school if it interfered with their religion, since they must prioritize the individual's right to religion over the state's duty to provide education.
Freedom of Speech/Expression
Tinker v. Des Moines
The government cannot restrict symbolic speech; armbands were considered symbolic speech.
Schenck v. United States
The SCOTUS affirmed the government's ability to check the freedom of speech when such speech creates a "clear and present danger".
NYT v. US
SCOTUS ruled that the newspapers also had a right to freedom of speech, and this couldn't be infringed upon by the government.
Gideon v. Wainwright
SCOTUS argued that everyone has a right to a fair trial and representation, and that states must also offer representation for felonies.