Nur Aishah Mohd Frdaridzuan-9.3 civics and citizenship, fairness/equal,…
Nur Aishah Mohd Frdaridzuan-9.3
civics and citizenship
6 key concepts of civics and citizenship
justice can mean different
things to different people depending on their
nationality, culture and values. For some it might
mean seeking revenge or payback, while for others it
might mean fairness.
Democratic values are the beliefs and ideals that
are held by our society as a democracy. Such values
include respect, equality, fairness and freedom
the west minster
The Westminster system is a
form of parliamentary government originating in
the United Kingdom. It is named after the area of
London where the British parliament is located
participation is an important
part of living in a democracy. It refers to the way
good citizens contribute or take part in society
rights and responsibilities
rights and responsibilities refers to
our entitlements and duties as citizens. The rights
and responsibilities we experience in Australia are
an important part of living in a democracy. Our
rights ensure we are able to have a say in the way our
country is run and are treated fairly in the process
A democracy is a system of government in which the
people have the power to determine how they will
be ruled or managed.
Australia’s political system
Australia has what is called parliamentary democracy
this is because those who are elected to represent us meet at a place called parliament
what is it?
political parties are made up of groups of people who share similar ideas about how their country or state should be run
There are many other smaller political parties such as the Nationals and the Greens. Each political party puts forwards their own candidates at election time
The difference between non legal
rules and legal rules (laws)
non legal rules
Non-legal rules are rules or regulations that are imposed upon the members of a specific group so they can work together in a peaceful manner.
e.g. schools can require students to wear a uniform and not have obvious body piercings
parents can require children to undertake specific tasks or chores
sporting clubs can require regular attendance at training sessions.
legal rules (laws)
Legal rules, or laws, are like non-legal rules in that they also exist to regulate our behaviour. However, legal rules are made by official law-making bodies – such as parliaments, local councils and the courts – and apply to all members of society.
our legal processes and procedure are built on a number of key principles, or beliefs to protect the rights of Australian citizens, our system is not perfect and sometimes injustice occurs.
coercion of suspects and witnesses
police must follow a range of legal processes and procedures to make sure suspects and witnesses are treated equally. if procedures are not followed injustice may occur.
or in other words, coercion takes place when officers of the law exert undue pressure to get an individual suspect to admit their involvement in a crime. It is important to note that not all coerced admissions of guilt are false confessions.
example; all suspects have a right to silence, they do not have to answer questions from police other than their name and address
trial by media
traditional and online media spread information quickly can create impressions of guilt before court. Trial by media can undermine the basic principle individuals have a presumption of innocence
4 key principles
individuals have the right to a fair hearing
the judiciary (i.e. the court) is independant and impartial
individuals have the right to a reasonable appeal
what is an appeal?
its where a person or party is unhappy with a decision of a court and wished to have their case heard by a higher court.
to appeal u must have reasonable grounds
appeal of unfair trial
appeal against severity of sentence
appeal against guilty verdict
all individuals are equal before the law
people who might be disadvantaged by the legal system
low income earners
they often cant afford to hire a lawyer to help them understand the legal system to prepare and present their case to the court.
they may have difficulty understanding the English language as well as the Australian legal system.
courts and laws
4 types of courts arranged from highest and serious(top) to less serious(bottom)
supreme court of appeal
magistrate court/family court