‘African Response’ and ‘Why Europeans were successful’ - Coggle Diagram
‘African Response’ and ‘Why Europeans were successful’
Europeans driven by imperialism. They wanted to catch up with British industrialisation and thus were desperate for a new market for their good as well as cheap access of abundant resources. This motivation gave them strong morale and thus were successful.
Signing of treaties
Signed by representatives of European powers and African chiefs. Africans signed to show that they surrendered their power and agreed to promote trade and accept other conditions
There was no evidence that they understood the context of the treaties. Most of them were illiterate.
these treaties demarcated boundaries and defined sphere on influence
Direct Military attack
deliberate use of armies subdued areas/ frightened them to surrender
e.g. French army; western sudan, Gabon, Madagascar.
e.g. Britain; Yoruba town of Ijebu Ode, Asante of Ghana
Germany, Italy portugal also used warfare
They had many disputes, but mainly agreed to share Africa, this made it easier to get hold of Africa
African response took military forms. State might use its army to fight European forces. However, the European armies had far more advanced weapons that would be more deadly. In comparison to spears and shields hand made by the locals.
although the resistance was prolonged showing the strength and capability of the Africans.
Cavalry charges, defence of wall cities were ineffective.
in wars experienced epidemics and famines, too weak to organize serious resistance
Rather than physically or politically fighting the Africans relied of high powers
spiritual forces, magical forces, called on ancestors, gods and spirits to help. Sacrifices were made in addition to prayers
pursued by forming an alliance and promising to cooperate with the Europeans
group felt threatened by violence thus sought to minimize this.
situations where they beleived to benefit from European rule.
Africans misunderstood the objectives of the colonial enterprise.
Africans used this to build morale and win wars, this provided nationalism but also allowed the Africans to reconcile themselves into the new situation.
Europeans took on one African nation at a time
Some cases where African leaders allied with an invading European invading power.
Strategical methods by Europeans
realised that Africa is too huge as a continent to take over at one go, thus took it part by part.
power of tecnology and availability of resources.
had money to buy troops and arms
armies devoted to fulltime warfare
African armies made up of volunteers who had to abandon their farms and occupations, without resources for prolonged warfare
Due to records supplied by explorers, more europeans than before could go to Africa to serve the army or administration than before
minimize the danger of diseases that frightened Europeans
guidlines on how to tackle other problems