CHAPTER 4 : Embodiment Design - Coggle Diagram
CHAPTER 4 : Embodiment Design
Product architecture, Configuration Design and Parametric Design
Determining the arrangement of the physical elements of the design into groups
Arrangement of the physical elements of a product to carry out its required functions.
Process to establish product architecture
Create a schematic diagram
Cluster the elements of the schematic
Create a rough geometric layout
Identify the interactions between modules
Put electrical supply and control panel at the top -> Prevent short-circuit in case the drum and piping leaked unexpectedly
Water in at the top and water out located at the bottom -> Use gravity for water filtering and assist pump to flush water
Motor, drum pulley and pump are near to each other -> Easier to transfer rotation to drum pulley and pump using belt
Arrange components positions regarding its size and space availability
Consider any thermal and electrical interferences
Do some sketches until get the final components layout
Divide into groups of elements (Ex. 4 Groups)
List all components involved
Connect elements to indicate flow of force or energy (thin line) and signals (dashed line)
Fully Automatic Washing Machine
Design special purpose parts and the selection of standard components, like pumps and motors
Establish the shape and general dimensions of components.
The best way to start configuration design is by sketching the part. Several sketches are required to determine all available alternatives
Factors to be considered during sketches
1.Function –Are the shapes able to execute the function properly?
2.Material selection –Do the material able to withstand the forces?
3.Manufacture method –How to manufacture the component? Time required? Cost?
Configuration design is continuous process of refining and patching.
Refining –making an object less abstract and have more detailed descriptions
Patching –Modification/improvement without changing its function
Progress of configuration design
Determine the exact values, dimensions and tolerances of the components
Specify size, location and orientation of features of the component
Permissible variation from the specified dimension
Set values for the design variables that will produce the best possible design considering performanceand manufacturability.
Less play or chance for vibration in moving parts
High manufacturing cost
Low manufacturing cost
Easier to assemble the components
Poorer system performance
Shaft & bearing clearances and fit
Understand the design problem
Shaft diameter should be above 9.5 mm to support the load. Shaft diameter = inner diameter of the bearing
Find alternative design
Consider available bearing size first because bearing have their standard part. Available bearing size: 10 mm.
Analyze & evaluate
Check the tolerances of each part. Determine whether the clearance is acceptable by testing.
Refine & Optimize
Adjust if surface finishing is not suitable for the application.
Object that has no assembly operations in its manufacture. It includes standard parts, special-purposed parts, and standard assemblies
Part that has generic function, manufactured routinely, readily available. Ex: Bolts, washers, rivet, pipe, hollow square
Special purpose parts
Part that is designed and manufactured for specific purposes.
Assembly of parts that has generic function. Ex: Motor, pumps and gearboxes
Assembly that is included in other assembly
Design for Manufacturing & Design for Assembly
Design for manufacturing (DFM) : is based onminimizing the cost of production includingminimizing the time to market while maintaining a high standard of quality for the product
provides guidance in the selection of materials and processes and generates piece part and tooling cost estimates at any stage of product design
failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA
Methodology for determining all possible ways that components can fail and establishing the effect of failure on the system
design of experiment (DOE)
Design for Assembly (DFA)
the study of the ease of assemblingvarious parts and components into a final product
A lower number of parts and an ease of assembly contributeto reducing the overall cost of the product
every part has to be checked. It must bedetermined if it is a necessary part or would it be betterintegrated into other parts or be replaced by a similarfunction part that is simpler and costs less
DFM and DFA helps contribute to thecompetitive success of any given product by matching thatproduct’s demands to its manufacturability and assemblycapabilities
Design for environment
often called green design, environmentally conscious design, life-cycle design or design for recyclability
three things happens to its components
Factors contributed to Design for Environment
It is less expensive to recycle some material than it is to pay the expense of processing new raw materials
Especially for the product that it is easily disassembled into components made of single material
Consumers are increasingly more environmentallyconscious and aware of the value of recycling
Thus, company that produce the product that affect theenvironment, are looked down by the public
Government regulation is forcing attention on theenvironment
Ergonomic and Human Factor Design
the design to optimize human well-being and overall system performance by understanding interactions among human and designed products or systems
Creating a User-friendly design
Fit the product to the users physical attributes and knowledge
Simplify tasks, simple to operate
Make the controls and functions obvious
Make control reflect or map the operation and easy to handle
Utilize constraints to prevent incorrect actions
Provide feedback and good display
Anticipate human errors
Avoid awkward and extreme motions