Processes leading to extreme tourism in Nepal, - Coggle Diagram
Processes leading to extreme tourism in Nepal
1. Tectonic forces create the Himalayas
40 - 50 million years ago, this immense mountain range began to form between when two large landmasses collided, driven by plate movement
In just 50 million years, peaks such as Mt. Everest have risen to heights of more than 8,000 meters
Fast-forward to today, The Himalayas continue to rise more than approximately 1 cm a year
However, the forces of weathering and erosion are lowering the Himalayas at about the same rate.
Due to rising temperatures, the ice glaciers are melting causing various issues
These rising temperatures are caused by the litter/trash left on the mountain by climbers
These melting glaciers are exposing the dead bodies of climbers that perished
Removing and recovering bodies from the higher camps on Everest can be expensive and difficult
Additionally, the recovery of the deceased's body can prove to be fatal for the Sherpas/mountaineers bringing them down
The melting of Everest impacts the people living in the areas around the mountain
Most towns rely on the gradual flowing of water that serves as their main source of water, any change could result in a catastrophy
If there is a sudden amount of water, the flooding could devastate the Nepalese residents
Or, if there is a sudden drought of water due to the ice sheets/glaciers having already melted, the consequences would be terrible
Several studies have shown the glaciers in the Everest region, as in most parts of the Himalayans, are melting and thinning fast
3. Western climbers popularises Mt Everest resulting in extreme tourism
Foreigners seeking adventure, challenge and accomplishment
Whether you are a thrill-seeker or an experienced climber, the allure of the tallest mountain in the world (Mt. Everest) is too had to resist
The craving of the intense adrenaline rush or thrill that comes with taking part in dangerous journeys usually compels the foreigners to attempt to reach the world's highest summit, despite the mountain being deadlier than ever
The idea of climbing is spread around the world, resulting in more awareness of Mt. Everest
Although, the negative impacts on the mountain, local Sherpas, and the climbers are being publicized, the amount of Everest Expeditions have increased over the years
Due to advances in transportation and communication technology, mountain climbing is now considered safer than it was years ago.
Companies specialising in tourism sees Mt. Everest as a way to make $$$
Nepal's mountains and rivers offer almost unlimited opportunities for extreme outdoor activities
Accompanied by a Sherpa guide, trekking routes in Nepal are some of the main tourist attractions, offering breathtaking scenery and exotic wildlife.
As hundreds of mountaineers are able to scale the mountain each year thanks to improvements in knowledge, technology, etc, more and more people are willing to pay thousands of dollars
The typical cost when climbing Everest with a Western agency is $45,000 and above. With a local Nepali operator it can be between $25,000 and $40,000. Also the permit fee has to purchased from the Nepal government. This is around $11,000 per person.
2. The local Sherpas become involved
Sherpa is one of the Tibetan ethnic groups native to the most mountainous regions of Nepal and the Himalayas. They have long served as guides and porters, whose local expertise has been invaluable for foreigners attempting climbs in the Himalayans.
Being a Sherpa guide on Mount Everest expeditions carries a high risk of severe injury or death. Although specific counts vary, it is estimated that around a third of the fatalities have been Sherpas
Until the 20th century, Sherpas had not attempted to scale the region’s mountains.
For the Sherpa community that lives at the foothills of Everest, the mountain is sacred. They refer to it as Chomolungma, which means "Goddess Mother of the Land" in Tibetan language.
Some most well-known Sherpas in history are Tenzing Norgay and Apa Sherpa.
Tenzing Norgay: Born in 1914, was a Nepali-Indian Sherpa mountaineer. He was one of the first two individuals to reach Mt. Everest's summit, which he accomplished with Edmund Hillary in 1953
Apa Sherpa: Was born in 1960, is a Sherpa mountaineer, nicknamed "Super Sherpa", broke the record for the most Everest summits
Research has proven that Sherpas’ superior strength at high altitudes is a genetic gift that show Sherpas can process oxygen more efficiently.
4. Culture of Nepal
According to the 2017 statistics, the purpose of most tourists travelling to Nepal was to visit/observe pilgrimage sites and heritage sites
Historic monuments, temples and places are scattered around Kathmandu Valley. There are museums with exhibits traditions and how Nepal's 2 main religions, Buddhism and Hinduism, merged to form its own beliefs and culture.
The Nepalese are generally known to be friendly and welcoming
This is why Sherpas are usually thought to be tenacious friends of the foreign mountaineers or the guardian angels of the Himalayas