Hachinski, V., Iadecola, C., Petersen, R. C., Breteler, M. M., Nyenhuis, D. L., Black, S. E., ... & Vinters, H. V. (2006). National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke–Canadian stroke network vascular cognitive impairment harmonization standards. Stroke, 37(9), 2220-2241.
• Up to 64% of persons who have experienced a stroke have some degree of cognitive impairment,2 with up to a third developing frank dementia.3–5 Conversely, postmortem pathological studies6–11 indicate that up to 34% of dementia cases show significant vascular pathology. Moreover, the same risk factors that make individuals prone to cerebrovascular disease also put them at risk for cognitive impairment
• Cognitive impairment that is caused by or associated with vascular factors has been termed “vascular cognitive impairment” (VCI).14–16 VCI can occur either alone or in association with Alzheimer disease (AD)