Emergence of agriculture and writing - Coggle Diagram
Emergence of agriculture and writing
New challenges for humanity
Humans organized themselves to face the new conditions they found in the places they arrived: other climates, new predators, even more primitive humans.
They also improved their tools: they added handles, for example, to improve their efficiency; they invented the rope, fishing hooks, whistles, baskets.
In the cold areas, they needed animal skins to cover themselves and to hunt better; they invented the spear, the bow; and, to separate the flesh of the skin, better burins, chisels and flint knives.
The first things that appeared were lines, circles and symbols carved in stones (petroglyphs); then, small sculpted bone objects and, 30,000 years ago, the cave painting on the walls of caves:
Changes brought by agricultural revolution
The main and immediate change that agriculture brought the sedentary. Groups had to look after their plantations, harvest them and store the products that they did not immediately consume (surpluses); therefore, they could no longer travel to different places.
The second big change was in housing: branch sheds and caves were not enough, as in nomadic life. They had to build the first houses, with whatever was available in the area: stone, mixed wood,etc. The gathering of several houses, often behind a fence to protect themselves from predators and enemies, led to the formation of hamlets and villages.
The populations mastered the cultivation techniques: fertilizer, irrigation, seed selection and conservation of the surpluses, as well as the breeds of domesticated animals and the quality of the tools used. This increased the harvested product, which was the third big change
The availability of more consumable calories brought the increase in population, the fourth big change. Biologists have estimated that the total world human population, 10,000 years ago, was between 5 and 10 million. After 8,000 years, this figure had become 300 million.
Agricultural main centers
Northwest China, 7,000 years ago
the first farmers learned that seeds produced and that they could domesticate animals and thanks to agriculture humans went from being nomadic to sedentary
Andean America (today's Ecuador and Peru), 4,000 years ago
The crescent-shaped strip of land located in the eastern Mediterranean (called the Fertile Crescent, which includes the current countries of Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Syria and Turkey), 10,000 years ago.
Mesoamerica (a term applied to central and southern Mexico and adjacent areas of Central America), 5,000 years ago
Most people in the world changed their lifestyles about 10,000 years ago by adopting some form of agriculture.
to survive humans hunted and gathered their food
in the stone age people began to cultivate the land and gather food
Invention of writing
The development of cities and agriculture led to the growth of trade. In one of these cities, and for hundreds of years, Sumerian merchants kept records of what they sold and bought on clay tokens . To keep track of the sellings they covered the chips with mud that they scratched with the tip of a cane. Towards the year
3300 B.C., they realized that they did not need figures, and began to scratch with simplified signs at any surface representing the articles: that was the beginning of writing. As the canes left marks in the form of a triangle or wedge, this type of writing is known as "cuneiform".