Imperial Presidents by Wenjing An, William McKinley (1896 - 1901),…
by Wenjing An
Became governor of the Philippines in 1901
Had large ambitions for helping the islands recover from the rebellion
Censored the press and placed dissidents in jail to maintain order and to win the support of the Filipino people
Began several policies to improve the situation of the Filipinos
Extended limited self-rule, with the Philippine Assembly convening in Manila in 1907
Alsoordered the construction of roads, bridges, and schools
Established a public health system to care for Filipinos
handpicked by Roosevelt to be the president
shared Roosevelt's basic foreign policy objectives
wanted to maintain the Open Door Policy in Asia and ensure ongoing stability in Latin America
hoped to achieve these ends by relying less on the "big stick" and more on "dollar diplomacy."
dispatched troops to Nicaragua in 1909----and again in 1912----to protect the formation of a pro-American government there
believed U.S. should invest in foreign economics to increases American influence
Continued Roosevelt's foreign policy but with less aggression
Worked for stability in Latin America
Worked to expand economic opportunities in China
signed the Jones-Shafroth Act
Granted Puerto Ricans More citizenship rights and gave the islanders greater control over their own legislature.
appointed the anti-imperialist William Jennings Bryan as secretary of State
believed U.S. should spread peace and democracy rather than colonize foreign countries
believed other nations should be self-governing
continued to use American military in Latin America
wished to cultivate a friendship with Latin America
"We must prove ourselves [Latin America's] friends and champions upon terms of equality and honor...."
United Stated would "never again seek one additional foot of territory by conquest" but would instead work to promote "human rights, national integrity, and opportunity."
sent marines to Haiti to protect American investments and to guard against the potential of German or French aggression in the nation
prodded the government of Haiti to sign an agreement that essentially gave the United States the right to control its financial and foreign affairs
will not accept a "government of butchers."
instead, favored Venustiano Carranza, another reformer, who had organized anti-Huerta forces
Intervention in Mexico
used the Mexican arrest of American sailors as an opportunity to help Carranza attain power
sent marines to occupy the Mexican port of Veracruz. The action caused Huerta's government to collapse, and Carranza assumed the presidency.
soon discovered that he faced more trouble in Mexico
responded by sending General John J. Pershing and more than 10,000 troops on a "punitive expedition" to Mexico.
eventually withdrew American troops from Mexico in 1917
mostly because of his concerns about Would War I raging in Europe
Wanted Spanish to quickly establish peace, or the United States would take whatever steps it "should deem necessary to procure this result."
Spain recalled General Weyler and offered the Cuban rebels some reforms. But the rebels insisted on independence, which Spain refused to grant.
Ordered the battleship
to Havana harbor to protect American citizens in Cuba.
A private letter written by Enrique Dupuy de Lome, Spain's ambassador to Washington,D.C.
Called McKinley a weak and stupid politician and published the letter under the sensational headline, "Worst Insult to the United States in Its History".
Leads to Spanish-American War
called for more than 100,000 volunteers to join the army
declared war on the United States
Explained that "We could not give [the Philippines] back to Spain----that would be cowardly and dishonorable."
Believed that America had no choice but to "take them all, and to educate the Filipinos, and uplift and civilize...them."
Open Door Policy with China
allowing Chinese students to study in America
Used some of the indemnity money it received from China to fund scholarships for Chinese students
Organized and commanded one of the cavalry unit
Gained fame for the role they played in the battles for Kettle and San Juan hills outside Santiago.
Named by William McKinley, the "hero of San Juan Hill,"
Works with Japan
involved in the Russo-Japanese War
intervened and convinced the two sides to sign a peace treaty
won the Nobel peace Prize
disapproved of the decision to segregate Asian children in the San Francisco schools
negotiated a "Gentlemen's Agreement" with Japan
Promoted military preparedness to protect U.S. interests in Asia
Expressing rising concerns about Japan's territorial expansion at the expense of China, Korea, and Russia
Sent this Great White Fleet armada of 16 white battleships on a "good will cruise" around the would in 1907
promoted a new kind of diplomacy based on America's success in the Spanish-American War
developed a broader policy for U.S. action in Latin America
"Big Stick" Diplomacy
View that America needed to carry a big stick during the Age of Imperialism flowed from his adherence to balance-of-power principles
View the United States as a special nation with a moral responsibility to "civilize," or uplift, weaker nations
believed American military should be used to achieve goals
did not believe nations should be self-governing
supported rebellion in Panama
opposed European intervention in the Western Hemisphere
Dream was to create a passage from the Caribbean Ocean to the Pacific Ocean through Central America
Worked withe the American team of engineers to overcome a number of human and physical geographic challenges
involved in Panama Canal
William McKinley (1896 - 1901)
Theodore Roosevelt (1901 - 1908)
William Howard Taft (1909 - 1912)
Woodrow Wilson (1913 - 1920)