To what extent was Eisenhower’s New Look policy a departure from the…
To what extent was Eisenhower’s New Look policy a departure from the foreign
policy of Truman?
Eisenhower's New Look policy was a significant departure from the foreign policy of Truman. Eisenhower and Truman had two distinct approaches to fighting and containing communism. Truman, being the first CW President, had laid the foundations for a continuous policy of containment through foreign policies and alliances such as NATO and the Truman Doctrine/Marshall Plan
Eisenhower's New Look policy was a notable departure from the foreign policy of Truman as it focussed on the use of nuclear weapons in order for the US to reduce the strain on their economy.
Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan gave financial support to many countries, primarily in Europe
Marshall Plan was focused on rebuilding the economy --> enacted the Truman Doctrine
Truman Doctrine was focused on containing communism
First aid given was $300 million to Greece and $100 million to Turkey
Military Build up
NATO --> established political and economic association with the military (Defensive alliance
$50 million per annum on military under Truman
Official Connections + Alliances
William Walker and Micheal Gobart
Success of Truman Doctrine comes from the theory of "empire by invitation"
criticised the Truman Doctrine as a global policy and argued that "Truman and containment led the USA into unimportant, undesirable and unaffordable commitments all over the globe"
Aim: Containment --> also to balance the Cold War military commitments of US with the nations financial resources
Financial support came through the Eisenhower Doctrine
Military Build up
New Look -- Cut spending on conventional forces and increased spending for air force and nuclear weapons
Massive Retaliation --> US prepared to use atomic weapons if needed
Official Connections and Alliances
Wanted to improve US-Soviet relations
Khruschev trip to US
Tensions increased when U2 plance was shot down
Ended involvment in Korean War
Kept US out of Vietnam until JFK
Both wanted to contain communism
Truman more focussed on essentially bribing countries to not fall to communism and keep under US sphere of influence
Eisenhower more about being prepared to use atomic weapons so that they don't need to be prepared to fight wars in multiple locations at a given time