Islamic science after the Abbasid era, , , - Coggle Diagram
Islamic science after the Abbasid era
Nasir al-Din al-Tusi
Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Tūsī, better known as Nasir al-Din Tusi, was a Persian polymath, architect, philosopher, physician, scientist, and theologian.
he is often considered the creator of trigonometry as a mathematical discipline in its own right
He was a Twelver Muslim. The Muslim scholar Ibn Khaldun (1332–1406) considered Tusi to be the greatest of the later Persian scholars.
He was sent to the major castles of Alamut and Maymun-Diz to continue his career under Nizari Imam Ala al-Din Muhammad. He was captured after the fall of Maymun-Diz to the Mongol forces under Hulagu Khan.
Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Muhammad al-Husayni al-Shirazi commonly known as Imam Shirazi, was an Iranian-Iraqi Shia marja' and political theorist.
al-Shirazi was born to Mirza Mahdi al-Shirazi and Halima al-Shirazi. Both of his parents are from the distinguished clerical al-Shirazi family that emigrated from Shiraz to Karbala in the 19th century.
He is the first of ten children. All of his brothers are clerics, and Sadiq al-Shirazi is a marja'. His mother is the great-granddaughter of Mirza Shirazi, the pioneer of the Tobacco Movement. His nephew, Mohammad Taqi al-Modarresi is also a marja'.
He grew up and studied briefly in Najaf, and moved to Karbala with his father in 1937.
He remained in Karbala studying in its seminary under his father, as well as prominent scholars like Sayyid Hossein Tabatabaei Qomi, Sayyid Muhammad-Hadi al-Milani, Sheikh Muhammad-Ridha al-Isfahani, Sayyid Zain al-Abiden al-Kashani and Sheikh Jafar al-Rashti.
He was granted an ijaza by grand Ayatollah's Sayyid Muhsin al-Hakim; Sayyid Abd al-Hadi al-Shirazi; Sayyid Ahmed al-Khawansari to lead the seminary of Karbala after the death of his father, in 1961.
Died: December 17, 2001 (aged 73);
Born: August 31, 1928; Najaf
Salman the Persian or Salman al-Farsi, born Roozbeh, was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the first Persian who converted to Islam.
During some of his later meetings with the other Sahabah, he was referred to by the kunya Abu Abdullah.
He is credited with the suggestion of digging a trench around Medina, a Sasanian military technique, when it was attacked by Mecca in the Battle of the Trench.
He was raised as a Zoroastrian, then attracted to Christianity, and then converted to Islam after meeting Prophet Muhammad in the city of Yathrib, which later became Medina.
ccording to some traditions, he was appointed as the governor of Al-Mada'in in Iraq. According to popular tradition, Muhammad considered Salman as part of his household (Ahl al-Bayt). He was a renowned follower of Ali ibn Abi Talib after the death of Muhammad.
Abu al-Ḥasan Alāʾ al‐Dīn ʿAlī ibn Ibrāhīm al-Ansari known as Ibn al-Shatir or Ibn ash-Shatir was an Arab astronomer, mathematician and engineer.
He worked as muwaqqit in the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus and constructed a sundial for its minaret in 1371/72.
Born: 1304, Damascus, Syria
Died: 1375, Damascus, Syria
Ibn al-Shatir most important astronomical treatise was kitab nihayat al-sul fi tashih al-usul ("The Final Quest Concerning the Rectification of Principles"). In it he drastically reformed the Ptolemaic models of the Sun, Moon and planets.
His model incorporated the Urdi lemma, and eliminated the need for an equant by introducing an extra epicycle (the Tusi-couple), departing from the Ptolemaic system in a way that was mathematically identical (but conceptually very different) to what Nicolaus Copernicus did in the 16th century.
Mīrzā Muhammad Tāraghay bin Shāhrukh, better known as Ulugh Beg, was a Timurid sultan, as well as an astronomer and mathematician.
Ulugh Beg was notable for his work in astronomy-related mathematics, such as trigonometry and spherical geometry, as well as his general interests in the arts and intellectual activities.
It is thought that he spoke five languages: Arabic, Persian, Turkic, Mongolian, and a small amount of Chinese.[
During his rule (first as a governor, then outright) the Timurid Empire achieved the cultural peak of the Timurid Renaissance through his attention and patronage. Samarkand was captured and given to Ulugh Beg by his father Shah Rukh.
Born: March 22, 1394, Soltanieh, Iran
Died: October 27, 1449, Samarkand, Uzbekistan
Ala al-Dīn Ali ibn Muhammed, known as Ali Qushji was a Timurid theologian, jurist, astronomer, mathematician and physicist, who settled in the Ottoman Empire some time before 1472.
He attended the courses of Qazi zadeh Rumi, Ghiyāth al-Dīn Jamshīd Kāshānī and Muin al-Dīn Kashi. He moved to Kerman, Iran (Persia), where he conducted some research on storms in the Oman sea.
He completed Hall-e Eshkal-i Ghammar (Explanations of the Periods of the Moon) and Sharh-e Tajrid in Kirman. He moved to Herat and taught Molla Cami about astronomy (1423).
After professing in Herat for a while, he returned to Samarkand. There he presented his work on the Moon to Ulugh Beg, who found it so fascinating that he read the entire work while standing up.
Born: 1403, Samarkand, Uzbekistan
Died: December 16, 1474, İstanbul Eyaleti
Shams al-Din Muhammad b. Ahmad al-Khafri al-Kashi, known as Khafri, was a Persian religious scholar and astronomer at the beginning of the Safavid dynasty, during a period of mass conversion to Shia Islam.
In his commentary on al-Tusi Khafri contributes some original solutions to the equant problem, three for Mercury and one for the Moon.
His solution for the Moon, like Ptolemy's original model, still contains the discrepancy for the Moon's distance that was fixed earlier by al-Shatir, of whose work he was apparently not aware.
e wrote on philosophy, religion, and astronomy, the latter including a commentary on al-Tusi and critiques of al-Shirazi.
Born: Fars Province, Iran