The Mughals had a very low customs tax (no more than 2%). Indian exports were, for the most part, manufactured goods (especially cloth, which was demanded in Europe and in time, by half the world [the east coast of Africa, Arabia, Egypt, Southeast Asia in addition to Europe]). Indigo, spices, saltpeter, sugar, borax, many types of drugs and other items were also exported. The principal imports included coral, bullion, horses, raw silk and amber. Indian merchants often demanded to be paid in silver or gold, which caused many Europeans to complain. Yet, since Indian goods were so valuable, Europeans were willing to abide by India’s trade rules until the 18th century, when actions were taken in Europe and in other places to dissuade the call for Indian goods. As India’s textile industry -- well established in the times of Akbar -- prospered which, through the actions of Dutch + English traders, brought India into direct contact with western markets. Other industries in India included shawl and carpet weaving, woolen goods, pottery, leather goods and wooden articles. And while the mercantile side of the industry was controlled by middlemen, the empire played its own role. In fact, the emperor himself controlled many a royal workshop, which created articles for his use, and the use of his family, the court and the army. He oversaw silk factories, and imported craftsmen from all over the empire, and from different parts of the world. Akbar often dropped by the workshops near the palace, which motivated the craftspeople and upped their status. Over time, foreign traders established close agreements with important Indian markets, and thus new articles demanded in Western Europe started to be made in higher quantities.