Types of Traumatic Stress M4U4A2-Cohort 11 October 2020, …
Types of Traumatic Stress
Emotional and behavioral signs of bullying
Changes in sleep patterns
Frequent tears or anger
Changes in eating patterns
Feels ill in the morning
Continually 'loses' money or starts stealing.
Refuses to talk about what is wrong
Becomes withdrawn or starts stammering
Begins to target siblings
Physical signs of bullying
Has unexplained bruises, cuts, scratches
Comes home with missing or damaged belongings or clothes
Comes home hungry.
School signs of bullying
Doesn't want to go to school
Changes their route to school or are frightened of walking to school
Doesn't want to go to school on the bus/tram/train
School grades begin to fall.
Other signs of bullying
Often alone or excluded from friendship groups at school
A frequent target for teasing, mimicking or ridicule at school
Unable to speak up in class and appears insecure or frightened.
Teach about ethics and ethical behavior
Emphasize the importance of respect and dignity for EVERYONE in the classroom.
Emphasize a respect for differences of all kinds.
Model appropriate behavior- apologies and appreciations. The ways in which you handle your own anger, stress, frustration and mistakes provide valuable lessons for students.
Discuss difference between tattling and reporting
Role-play situations with students- develop strategies with them to handle bullying situations
Develop a school-wide policy on bullying prevention and intervention.
Define unacceptable behaviors and the consequences for those behaviors and consistently impose them.
Use consistent terminology to hold students accountable for various forms of bullying
Saturate the school atmosphere with anti-bullying messages and incentives
Determine high-risk locations for bullying and actively monitor these areas
Feeling sad all the time.
Drop in academic performance.
Identify the problem/be on the look out.
Connect to counsellors.
Put students in a small advisory groups in a big school.
Build strong relationship
Create a welcoming culture in school.
Screen students with suicidal behaviour and also a wider screening for depression.
Share your concerns if you see someone who is always sad.
Pay attention to the outer circles of friends too.
Avoid glamorising and oversimplifying the act of suicide
Distribute the signs of suicide in the local media.
Rubenstein, G. (2009, November 10). Suicide Prevention Can Start in School. Edutopia.
Nearly 1 in 5 Teens Seriously Consider Suicide. Can Schools Offer Relief? (2018, November 13). [Video]. YouTube PBS NewsHour.
These strategies for students and schools are modifications of the WHO-endorsed interagency mental health and psychosocial support
Community self-help and social support
should be strengthened, for example by creating or re-establishing community groups... these can be school related and/or a part of the greater community, ex. clubs, teams, Church, family
Protecting and promoting the rights of the student
... with severe mental health conditions and psychosocial disabilities is especially critical in humanitarian emergencies. Students may need support plans or accommodations in school.
Links and referral mechanisms
need to be established between mental health specialists, general health-care providers, community-based support and other services - teachers and other school workers need to be informed and may need training
for people impaired by prolonged distress should be offered by specialists or by trained and supervised community workers in the health and social sector.
Basic clinical mental health care
covering priority conditions (e.g. depression, psychotic disorders, epilepsy, alcohol and substance abuse) should be provided at a health-care facility by trained and supervised general health staff.
Psychological first aid
first-line emotional and practical support to people experiencing acute distress due to a recent event and should be made available by field workers, including health staff, teachers, Principals, Counsellors, or trained volunteers.
If a student has experiences a large natural disasters, either in the current school community or a previous one - they are likely to have symptoms of traumatic stress.
One person in five (22%) living in an area affected by conflict is estimated to have depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, bipolar disorder or schizophrenia.
There are various types of social and mental health problems in any large emergency - communities with students that have been through natural disasters will need to plan for and address these problems (whether or not that disaster happened in the current school community).
Mental health problems
anxiety due to a lack of information about food distribution or about how to obtain basic services - students may develop an unhealthy view towards those who want to help
mental disorders such as depression, schizophrenia or harmful use of drugs or alcohol
grief, acute stress reactions, harmful use of alcohol and drugs, and depression and anxiety, including post-traumatic stress disorder
overcrowding, lack of privacy, and undermining of community or traditional support
poverty and discrimination of marginalized groups
family separation, lack of safety, loss of livelihoods, disrupted social networks, and low trust and resources
It should not be assumed that the community is aware of a student who has experienced a large scale natural disaster. Often students who leave these situations carry with them the trauma of the event that they left.
If the student is demonstrating
symptoms of PTSD
rather than assuming or ignoring, a good place to start is to
: your PLC, your Administration, the Family, the student.
Foster Care Life/Moving from placement to placement
Symptoms of trauma
trouble with change in patterns, routines and schedules
sad at holidays and celebrations
Does not want to make short term or long term plans
Failure to form attachements
lack of confidence
avoidance of graduation and celebrations
lack of trust
Concerned about "being tricked"
provide safe space
avoid switching things around
celebrate holidays in class as a group rather than emphasize the family aspect of holiday gatherings and traditions
Social Skills classes
Support group with other foster care kids
Collaborative learning in classes
Overly negative thoughts about oneself or the world
Exaggerated self-blame or blame of others
Decreased interest in activities
Irritability or aggression
Risky or destructive behavior
Intense conflict between parents has been shown to increase children’s distress. Overt hostility, such as screaming and threatening one another has been linked to behavior problems in children.3 But minor tension may also increase a child’s distress. If you struggle to co-parent with your ex-spouse, seek professional help.
Avoid Putting Kids in the Middle
Asking kids to choose which parent they like best or giving them messages to give to other parents isn’t appropriate. Kids who find themselves caught in the middle are more likely to experience depression and anxiety.
Maintain Healthy Relationships
Positive communication, parental warmth, and low levels of conflict may help children adjust to divorce better. A healthy parent-child relationship has been shown to help kids develop higher self-esteem and better academic performance following divorce.
Use Consistent Discipline
Establish age-appropriate rules and follow through with consequences when necessary. A study published in 2011 showed effective discipline after divorce reduced delinquency and improved academic performance.
Empower Your Children
Kids who doubt their ability to deal with the changes and those who see themselves as helpless victims are more likely to experience mental health problems. Teach your child that although dealing with divorce is difficult, he has the mental strength to handle it.
Teach Coping Skills
Kids with active coping strategies, like problem-solving skills and cognitive restructuring skills, adapt better to divorce. Teach your child how to manage his thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in a healthy way.
Help Kids Feel Safe
Fear of abandonment and concerns about the future can cause a lot of anxiety. But helping your child feel loved, safe, and secure can not only reduce clinginess but also diminish the risk of mental health problems.
Violence towards others
Oppositional to authority
Mediate with troubled students
Collaborate with school psychologist, parents and other involved students to find a solution
Set boundaries in class for all students to respect the personal space of others
SCHOOL VIOLENCE VIDEO
Young, D. (n/a). School Violence Prevention: Programs and Strategies. Retrieved October 06, 2020, from
Traumatic Grief - Dave Duffy
Changes in sleeping pattern or appetite.
Sad, angry or anxious feelings.
Persistent thoughts about the death.
Feeling the person's presense nearby.
Difficulties specific to Traumatic Grief include:
Intrusive memories about the death. These can appear through nightmares, guilt, or self-blame about how the person died, or recurrent or intrusive thoughts about the horrifying manner of death.
Avoidance and numbing. These can be expressed by withdrawal, the child acting as if not upset, or the child avoiding reminders of the person, the way she or he died, or the event that led to the death.
Physical or emotional symptoms of increased arousal. These can include irritability, anger, trouble sleeping, decreased concentration, drop in grades, stomachaches, headaches, increased vigilance, and fears about safety for oneself or others.
Avoid Potential Reminders
Trauma reminders: places, situations, people, sights, smells, or sounds reminiscent of the death. These may include the street corner where a fatal accident occurred, the bedroom where a parent died, or the sound of an airplane reminding a child of a mother who died in a crash.
Loss reminders: people, places, objects, situations, thoughts, or memories that are reminders of the person who died—for example, photo albums or a new coach who has replaced a parent who previously headed a child’s sports team.
Change reminders: situations, people, places, or things reminding the child of changes in his or her life resulting from the death—for example, moving to a new house or having to walk home with a babysitter rather than with an older sibling who died.
Balance normal school expectations with flexibility. Consider postponing or canceling large tests or projects that require
extensive energy and concentration for a period of time.
Be sensitive when the student is having difficulty, for example, on
the anniversary of a death or related to certain triggering topics or assignments.
Build a relationship of trust with the student’s family. Talk about re-integration into the class upon the student’s return and the
family’s preferences for sharing information with others.
NCTSN Fact Sheet for
withdrawing from family or friends.
decreased academic performance
feelings of isolation
changes in eating or sleeping habits
increased school absences
using alcohol and drugs to cope
loss of interest in hobbies or other activities
becomes upset, sad, or angry during or after being online or using their phone
increasingly reports symptoms of illness for which they want to stay home
expresses anger or dissatisfaction with a specific class or school in general
find the right response
responding to an incident immediately
ask students to report it
recognizing the signs
take it seriously
get parents involved
zero tolerance policy
The 5 R's
Revisit the issue to make sure it's resolved
Teach students about cyberbullying behaviors and why they're wrong
Create an environment of mutual respect and tolerance in the classroom
Incorporate the internet and social media into lessons to teach students how to be respectful to others online
Work closely with parents so they understand cyberbullying
Implement anti-cyberbullying policies in the classroom
Participate in training on cyberbullying prevention to better understand it
Let students know that it’s OK for them to report any online abuse that happens to them.
Adams, C (n.d.)
Cyberbullying: What Teachers and Schools Can Do
McCullom, K (2019) Cyberbulling in School: Prevention and Support. Retreived from:
42% of kids have been bullied online — 1 in 4 have had it happen more than once.
21% of kids have received mean or threatening e-mail or other messages.
58% have not told their parents about an online bullying incident.
14% have received mean or hurtful comments online.
13% have been the subject of rumors online.
7% have had someone impersonate them online.
8% report receiving a threatening cell phone text.
5% have had a mean or hurtful picture posted.
Cyberbullying occurs when someone harasses, torments, threatens or humiliates someone else through the use of technology — including text messages, social media sites, email, instant messages and websites.
Yu Lin :warning:
Increased risk of re-victimization throughout a person’s life
Females exposed to child sexual abuse are at a 2-13 times increased risk of sexual victimization in adulthood
Individuals who experienced child sexual abuse are at twice the risk for non-sexual intimate partner violence
The odds of attempting suicide are six times higher for men and nine times higher for women with a history of child sexual abuse than those without a history of child sexual abuse
Risky sexual behaviors, such as unprotected sex, sex with multiple partners
Increased risk for suicide or suicide attempts
Substance abuse including opioid use
Physical health consequences
Chronic conditions later in life, such as heart disease, obesity, and cancer
Mental health consequences
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Regression in young children, such as wetting the bed or thumb sucking.
Changes in hygiene, such as refusing to take a bath.
The student is complaining of pain in their genital area.
Feel pain when he/she is walking or sitting.
Blood in a young child’s underwear.
Tell you that he or she has been touched inappropriately or sexually.
A sexually transmitted infection
The student is acting overly concerned for a sibling.
Changes in hygiene, to cleanse themselves of what they perceive as shame and embarrassment.
The student's knowledge of sex seems to be more than it should be at his or her age.
Academic changes (falling grades, missing assignments, repeated absences)
The student seems withdrawn and doesn’t want to be hugged by some or all of his or her family members, family friends, teacher, or a particular person.
The student is behaving sexually inappropriately around others (this includes touching others inappropriately)
Use sexually inappropriate language
The student is suffering from depression or anxiety.
Harm him- or herself.
The student is making comments about his or her low self-worth.
Hysteria, lack of emotional control
Sudden school difficulties
Suddenly receiving gifts or money from a person in authority (a relative, coach, etc.).
The total lifetime economic burden of child sexual abuse in the United States in 2015 was estimated to be at least $9.3 billion. Although this is likely an underestimate of the true impact of the problem since child sexual abuse is underreported.
About 1 in 4 girls and 1 in 13 boys experience child sexual abuse at some point in childhood.
91% of child sexual abuse is perpetrated by someone the child or child’s family knows.
Planning for a Comprehensive Approach to Campus Prevention
Building the Prevention Infrastructure to Prevent Campus Sexual Violence
Use well trained staff and dedicated prevention staff
Use standardized training
Create a team/workgroup/committee
Foster relationships with referral services:
Incorporate violence prevention with other prevention programs
Use a trauma-informed approach
Appealing to Diverse Audiences to Reach Prevention Goals
Plan for differences in types of institutions
Engage parents as an audience
Use proactive and social media
Encourage active and visible bystanders
Evidence-based Strategies to Prevent
Promote Social Norms that
Protect Against Violence
Teach Skills to Prevent
Provide Opportunities to Empower
and Support Girls
Create Protective Environments
to Lessen Harms
Play an impactful role(teacher behavior）
Know the facts
Learn about age-appropriate sexual development
Encourge emotional regulation
Enourge and support school policies
Encourge the parents to educated their children
Trust your intuitions and report the problems
Be a tursted adult
Be a Good Friend when he/she says “Me Too”
Tell him/her your believe him/her
Do not minimize him/her experience or reflect that at least “insert something worse that could have happened here” didn’t happen.
Let him/her decide
Be respectful of the story
Don’t be afraid of tears
Be a voice of truth
Encourage him/her towards help
(Healing From Sexual Abuse Can Start With One Word)(
Addressing Race and Trauma in the Classroom
Preschoolers (3-5 years old)
Children in this age range may exhibit behaviors in response to trauma that can include re-creating the traumatic event or having difficulties with sleeping, appetite, or reaction to loud sounds or sudden move- ments. In addition, if they are exposed to media reports of racial trauma (such as a police shooting), they tend to focus on sights and sounds and interpret words and images literally. They may not fully grasp the concept of an image being repeatedly replayed on television and may think each time that the event is happening over and over again.
Children in this age range often exhibit a variety of reactions to trauma and to racial trauma in particular. Much will depend on whether they have directly experienced an event or have a personal connection with those involved. School-age children tend to view media coverage in personal terms, worrying that a similar event could happen to them. This can lead to preoccupations with their own safety or that of their friends, which in turn can lead to distractibility and problems in school.
Youth in this age range typically have a better understanding of events and the implications of issues such as racial trauma. They are also often still forming their identities and their views of the world and their place in it. High school-aged students may become fixated on events as a way of trying to cope or deal with the anxiety that they are feeling as a result. Older students may be exposed to a wide range of images and information via social media as well. They may benefit from discussing ways that they can promote positive changes in their communities.
1) Learn about the Impacts of History and Systemic Racism:
In order to constructively engage with students, educators must commit to foundational work to meet students’ needs for honest discussion.
2) Create and Support Safe and Brave Environments:
Establish a safe and brave environment for discussing emotionally charged issues. This provides opportunities to first acknowledge the impact various traumas may have on students’ academic experiences and then to create a safe space to engage academically
3) Model and Support Honesty and Authenticity:
Be truthful and acknowledge that exploring and discussing race and experiences related to historical and racial trauma can bring up emotions for all students.
4) Honor the Impacts of History and Systemic Racism:
Recognize that some students may be triggered when learning about or studying historical events related to racism.
Medical Trauma Matthew McPherson
80% of ill or injured children experience traumatic stress following a life threatening illness, injury, or painful medical procedure
15 - 25% of children and siblings experience persistent traumatic stress reactions
20 - 30% of parents experience persistent traumatic stress reactions
Impair day to day functioning
Affect adherence to medical treatment
Impedes optimal recovery
Reliving the traumatic event
Feeling wound up
Avoid reminders of the event
Negative thoughts and feelings
Substance Abuse (alcohol/drugs)
Affect personal relationships
Traumatic Stress Reactions-
3 Main Types
Re-experiencing means that the child keeps thinking a lot about the trauma, even when he does not want to. Some re-experiencing is normal and natural. und, a smell – reminds her of what happened.
Avoidance symptoms can start by trying not to think or talk about the trauma, or anything connected with it. Sometimes kids want to stay away from people, places or activities because these reminders upset them. And children sometimes develop new fears or worries.
Hyper-arousal also starts with a natural and normal response to danger, the “fight or flight response.” After an injury or accident, this “fight or flight” response might not turn off, even when the child is safe.
The National Child Traumatic Stress Network. (N.D.) Effects.
Phoenix Australia - Centre for Posttraumattic Mental Health (2013).
Recovery after trauma – a guide for people with posttraumatic Stress Disorder.
ISTSS. (2020). Friday fast facts: medical trauma [video]. Retrieved from:
New Day Northwest. (2017). 5 steps to heal from emotional trauma [video]. Retrieved from:htps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cXV3ZTYSMMA
Listen and show you care to the person affected
Encourage your loved one to seek help
Look after yourself & the person affected
Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)
Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR)
Medications (often selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
Is trauma-focused therapy the best treatment for me?
Can you tell me how the treatment works?
Does the treatment have any negative effects?
How long will treatment last?
What can I expect to happen during treatment?
Can you tell me what I will need to do during treatment or in my day to day life to help me get better?
What kind of improvement can I expect?
What support will I need while I am having treatment?
A combination of any of the following - therapy/counseling/medication
Center for Posttraumatic Mental Health
Mental Health Center
Constant bruising, broken bones, or other injuries with poor or no excuse for how they happened
Violence in art or written work
Sleeping at school
Changes in behavior
Dirty, ripped clothing
No money/no prepared lunch
Skittish or fearful
Aggressive with others
Often blame themselves
Wearing many layers of clothing, even in the summer
Often absent or late
Shows signs of regression
Mayo Clinic - symptoms of child abuse
Report to police or CPS
Ask student about abuse
Tell students in class they can share issues at home with their teachers
Don't rush to judgement
Be available to listen to students
Don't talk with the parents (or suspected abuser)
Only tell those who have to know
Keep resources in the classroom for students to take and read on their own
Tell the student you believe them
Determine the students safety
Let the student tell their own story, don't put words in their mouth
Document what the student told you
Don't make unrealistic promises to the student about what you can and can't do
Tell the student what is going to happen after a report is made
Refer the student to the school's counseling services
7 Ways Teachers Can Help Prevent Child Sexual Abuse
How Teachers Should Report Suspected Abuse of Children