How to teach grammar from rules, image, image, image, image, image, image,…
How to teach grammar from rules
Other rules for teaching grammar
try to provide the right
conditions for grammar learning
facilitate the learners' comprehension and production of real language
start off by find what they already know.
This means economising on presentation time in order to provide maximum practice time.
Rules and explanations
Should be true
should show clearly what the limits are
on the use of the given form.
should always be clear. Lack of clarity is
often caused by ambiguity or obscure terminology
should be simple to cover all possible
instances and account for all possible exceptions of the rule.
should try to make use
of concepts the students are already familiar.
should only answer those
questions that the learner needs answered.
A deductive approach
An inductive aproach
starts with some examples from which a rule is inferred
It is an approach which favours pattern-recognition and problem-solving abilities which suggests that it is particularly suitable for
learners who like this kind of challenge.
Working things out for themselves prepares students for greater self-reliance and is therefore conducive to learner autonomy.
Students are more actively involved in the learning process.
if the prblem solving is done collaboratively, and in the target language, learners get the opportunity for extra language practice.
starts with the presentation of a rule and is followed by examples in which the rule is applied
Encourages belief that learning a language is simply a case of knowing the rules
Encourages teacher-fronted, transmission-style classroom, discourages student involvement/interaction
May be off-putting to the students
Explanation is seldom as memorable as other forms of presentation
It gets straight to the point, and can therefore be time-saving.
Confirms many students' expectation about classroom learning
Allows the teacher to deal with language points as they come up
Sample lesson: Teaching used to using translation
explanations arc kept short, and the presentation is illustrated with clear examples. The teacher is also aware of the hazards of translation, and takes care to anticipate these.
In terms of efficiency, translation is probably the most economical rneans of conveying meaning - at least in terms of orienting learners a rough idea of the meaning - bearing in mind that translation is always only an approximation.
The A- factor
Translation is of course only really possibte in monolingual classes and where the reacher has a good command of the students' language.
The teacher starts by writing a sentence in Spanish on the blackboard and then asks his students how the translation would be.
Tony solía fumar, pero lo dejo hace dos años.
He then writes a sentence using the spanish verb SOLER in its present tense form
Andy suele fumar un paquete entero cada día
The teacher writes
He asks students to write true sentences of their own using this model, to compare them in groups of three, and to ask and answer questions about the topics they have chosen.