Strategic implementation for Tourism, Hospitality and Event organizations …
Strategic implementation for Tourism, Hospitality and Event organizations
Implementation is the system wide action taken by the firm members aimed at accomplishing formulated strategies
Methodology for communicating, coordinating and measuring strategic implementation
Balanced Scorecard (BSC)
Objectives, measures and targets:
- the total organization
- strategic business units
- individual operational teams
- individual members of staff
- identifying key components of operations
- setting goals for them
- finding ways to measure progress towards their achievement
- Satisfied shareholders
- Delighted customers
- Effective processes
- Motivated and prepared workforce
Vision and Strategy
- Financial perspective: financial performance should be provide for stakeholders
- Customer perspective: to be seen in customers
- Internal business perspective: what business process must be exceled at
- Innovation and learning perspective: how to sustain ability to change and improve
- Physical resources - land, buildings, plant, equipment,..
- Financial resources - share and loan capital required for development and expansion
- Human resources - obtaining the requisite number of appropriately skilled employees
- Intellectual or intangible resources - non physical inputs that may be necessary in some industries such as databases. legal permissions, brand or design registration, contract,...
Resources are purposely checked for:
Miles and Snow's typology:
The height of organizations:
- Tall structure: more layers of management suitable for larger organizations in complex environments
- Short structure: fewer layers of management suitable for smaller organizations in simpler environment
The width of structures: refers to the extent the organization is centralized or decentralized.
Complexity of structures: the extent to which the organization observes a formal hierarchy in its reporting relationships.
Methods of divisionalization:
- Functional specialism
- Geographic concentration
- Product specialism
- Customer focus
- Holding company
Lewin's model of change:
- Unfreezing (mobilization for change): introducing measures that will enable employees to abandon their current practices or cultural norms in preparation for the change.
- Moving (movement to a new level): bringing about the requisite change itself
- Refreezing (sustaining change): lock in the changes and to prevent the organization from going back to its old ways.
- Time/Scope/Preservation/ Diversity/ Experience and capability/Capacity/Readiness/Power
The urgency for change:
- Step change: occurs rapidly as organization moves from current level to a new level
- Incremental change: occurs over a period of time in incremental stages