Ch. 8 Vitamins Required for Calcified Structures - Coggle Diagram
Ch. 8 Vitamins Required for Calcified Structures
Vitamins required for Calcified structures
Vitamin A, D, E, K
Although these four differ in function, they have several characteristics:
they are soluble in fat or fat solvents
they are fairly stable to heat, as in cooking
they are organic substances
they do not contain nitrogen
they are absorbed in the intestine along with fats and lipids in foods
they require bile for absorption
Nutrients never work single-handedly, instead partner with eachother
Vitamins are catalysts for all metabolic reactions using proteins, fats, and carbohydrates for energy, growth, and cell maintenance
Vitamin A (retinol, carotene)
Retinol is the dietary sourece of vitamin A from animal sources and beta-carotene is teh principal carotenoid present in plant pigments
Vitamin A has many hormone-like roles in the body. it is required for normal bone growth and development and facilitating the transcription of DNA into RNA
found in organ meats, like liver. milk, cheese, butter, eggs, cod liver oil, and fortified foods, like breakfast cereal.
beta-carotene or provitam A is also present in yellow , orange, and green leafy vegetables
may result from inadequate vitamin A to permit rhodopsin production
condition takes years to develop in adults, but occurs much sooner in children because they have fewer body stores
Vitamins do not carry calories, but some vitamins are essential to the production of energy, especially B-complex vitamins.
Use of mineral oil as a laxative can interfere with absorption of fat-soluble vitamins.
the RDA for Vitamin A is 900 micrograms RAE for men, and 700 micrograms RAE for women.
The tolerable upper intake level (UL) is 3000 micrograms RAE per day
average intake in the U.S.meets the RDA and because it can be stored in the liver, most adults have sufficient quantities to maintain health
Vitamin D (Calciferol)
Vitamin D, although called a vitamin, it is more appropriately classified as a hormone
Skin cells are able to make vitamin D when the precursor 7-dehydrocholesterol, present in the skin, is exposed to ultraviolet light or sunshine
Vitamin D receptors are found in approximately 36 different types of cells, and the hormone is involved in the maintenance of more than 200 human genes
Vitamin D is intricately related to calcium and phosphorus, each being required for optimal use of the other.
helps the body absorb and regulate calcium
Primary role of vitamin D is mineralizaiton of bones and teeth and regulation of blood calcium and phosphorus levels
Requirements of vitamin D are difficult to determine and there are widely varying recommendations
formation of red blood cells
Vitamin D may also be involved with the function cells in hematopoesis, the skin, cardiovascular function, and immune response
vitamin D deficiency can lead to this conditions
characterized by decreased bone mineralization or softening of the bones , which may lead to deformities of the limbs, spine, thorax, and pelvis
eight different compounds are collectively referred to as Vtamin E, four tocopherols and four tototrienols
biological activity s different in the forms, .
alpha-tocopherol is the most active form and is used more efficiently by the body
Vitamin K (quinone)
three forms of Vitamin K hav ebeen identified
naturally occuring vitamins are K1 (phylloquinone), which occurs naturally in green plants.
Vitamin K2 (menaquinone) is formed by E. coli bacteria in the lare intestine and is found in animal tissues
vitamin K3 is a fat-soluble compound menadione is two to three times as potent as the natural vitamin