The elements of a research proposal. - Coggle Diagram
The elements of a research proposal.
Introduction and theoretical framework.
Provides readers with the background information for the research reported in the paper.
Create interest in the topic.
Lay the broad information for the problem that leads to the study.
Place the study within the larger context of the scholarly literature.
Reach out to specific audience. (Creswell, 1994, p. 42)
If a researcher is working within a particular theoretical framework/line of inquiry, the theory or line of inquiry should be introduced and discussed early, preferably in the introduction or literature review.
Theories, theoretical frameworks, and lines of inquiry may be differently handled in quantitative and qualitative endeavors.
Statement of the problem
“The problem statement describes the context for the study and it also identifies the general analysis approach” (Wiersma, 1995, p. 404).
“A problem might be defined as the issue that exists in the literature, theory, or practice that leads to a need for the study” (Creswell, 1994, p. 50).
It is important in a proposal that the problem stand out—that the reader can easily recognize it.
A problem statement should be presented within a context, and that context should be provided and briefly explained, including a discussion of the conceptual or theoretical framework in which it is embedded.
State the problem in terms intelligible to someone who is generally sophisticated but who is relatively uninformed in the area of your investigation.
Effective problem statements answer the question “Why does this research need to be conducted.”
For conference proposals, the statement of the problem is generally incorporated into the introduction; academic proposals for theses or dissertations should have this as a separate section.
Purpose of the study
If the purpose is not clear to the writer, it cannot be clear to the reader.
Briefly define and delimit the specific area of the research.
Foreshadow the hypotheses to be tested or the questions to be raised, as well as the significance of the study.
It can also incorporate the rationale for the study.
Review of the literature.
Provides the background and context for the research problem.
It shares with the reader the results of other studies that are closely related to the study being reported.
It provides a framework for establishing the importance of the study
Demonstrate to the reader that you have a comprehensive grasp of the field and are aware of important recent substantive and methodological developments.
Delinate the "jumping-off place" for your study.
Avoid statements that imply that little has been done in the area or that what has been done is too expensive to permit easy summary.
Is generally brief brief and to the point.
Committees may want a section outlining your search strategy, the procedures you used and sources you investigated.
Questions and Hypotheses
Are relevant to normative or census type research
Poses a relationship between two or more variables but phrases the relationship as a question.
Use questions or hypotheses depends on factors.
Hypotheses can be couched in four kinds of statements.
Specify the procedures you will use, and label them accurately.
Indicate briefly and analytic tools you will have available and expect to use.
Provide well thought-out rationale for your decision to use the design, methodology, and analyses you have selected.
Follow APA guidelines regarding use of references in text and in the reference list.
Only references cited in the text are included in te reference list.
Some committees require that reference lists and/or bibliographies be "annotated", which is to say that each entry be accompanied by a brief description,
The need for complete documentation generally dictates the inclusion of appropriate appendixes in proposals.
The following materials are appropriate for an appendix.
Verbatim instructions to participants
Original scales or questionnaries.
Sample of informed consent forms.
Cover letters sent to appropriate stakeholders.
Official letters of permission to conduct research