World Health Organization (WHO), - Coggle Diagram
World Health Organization (WHO)
Structure of organization (Ayra):
Main organizational bodies
1. World Health Assembly ("Health Parliament")
Supreme governing body and main decision-maker
All WHO members are represented in the WHA
Each member has one vote but may send three delegates who should represent national health administrators
Meet annually in May for about three weeks, usually in Geneva, Switzerland
What do they do?
Appoint the Director-General
Determine the policies of the Organization
Review and approve the proposed programme budget
Supervise financial policies
2. The Executive Board
34 members elected for three-year terms (⅓ of the members are replaced every year)
Annual Board meeting is held in January
A second shorter meeting is held in May, as a follow-up to the WHA
Implement the decisions and policies of the WHA
Can also take action themselves in case of an emergency
3. The Secretariat
Provides technical and managerial support to member delegates
Headed by the Director-General
Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus
5-year term length (can be appointed for multiple consequent terms)
Carries out routine operations and helps implement strategies approved by the WHA
4. Regions (6)
Each is headed by a Regional Director
Region - Headquarters
South East Asia - New Delhi (India)
Africa - Brazzaville Congo
Regional Director's Report June 2020
The Americas - Washington D.C. (USA)
Europe - Copenhagen (Denmark)
Eastern Mediterranean - Alexandria (Egypt)
Western Pacific - Manila (Philippines)
Regional Director's Report June 2020
194 member states
Nations become members by signing a constitution
Vote on policies and elect the director-general
Programme Budget 2020-2021
Assessed Contributions (AC) from Member States
A percentage of a country's GDP (% is agreed by the UN Assembly)
Member States approve them every two years at the WHA
Cover less than 20% of the total budget
Voluntary Contributions (VC)
Largely from Member States as well as other UN organizations, intergovernmental organizations, philanthropic foundations, the private sector, and other sources.
Core Voluntary Contributions
Fully unconditional (flexible)
WHO has full discretion on the usage of these funds
Represent 3.9% of all voluntary contributions
Top CVC contributors to WHO in 2018/19 (in US$million):
UK - 64.7
Sweden - 35.4
Norway - 27.3
Australia - 18.2
Netherlands - 10
Thematic and Strategic Engagement Funds
Meet contributors' requirements for reporting and accountability while still having some flexibility in allocating those funds
Represent 6% of all voluntary contributions
Specified Voluntary Contributions
Required to be spent within a specific timeframe to a specific program and/or geographical location
Represent 90.1% of voluntary contributions
Top contributors to WHO in 2018/19 (in US$ million):
USA - 853
UK - 464
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation - 455
GAVI Alliance - 389
Germany - 359
Aims and practice of the organization:
: WHO's main aims are to be a dominating authority on international health, to make sure there is prolific technical cooperation to inform the general public on international health matters , and to encourage research. The prime objective of WHO is to have all people attain the highest possible level of health.
Assisting governments (when requested), to help strengthen health services
Advancing work and research on the prevention of endemics, epidemics, and various other diseases.
The promotion of health and biomedical services research.
In cooperation with other agencies and organizations, to help improve housing, nutrition, recreation, sanitation, working/economic conditions, and environmental hygiene in areas that this required.
To help improve the standards of training and education in the medical and health related professions.
Helping to establish the international standards for pharmaceutical, biological, and other medical/health related products, as well as diagnostic procedures.
Taking action in the area of mental health through various different activities, especially doing activities that affect the balance of human relations.
Effects of the organization (Giorgia)
The World Health Organization has several key aims and effects. The main goal is to protect billions of people around the world from health emergencies, ensure universal health coverage and provide people with overall health and well-being.
The WHO has been able to provide health assistance to less fortunate countries who struggle with health issues but do not have the resources to combat these issues due to poverty and lack of governmental assistance.
WHO also allows and control the fair/equal distribution of pharmaceutical products (vaccinations, drugs etc) that allow for the development and improvement of health issues.
The WHO has had many positive effects on governments and has developed and improved the way global issues regarding health are acted upon by all nations. (i.e. COVID 19)
The WHO work to develop better health policies and use funds to ensure that health is prioritized with overall economic/development plans.
The WHO has affected the way pandemics and global health issues are dealt with and has allowed for the health sector to be more productive and effective around the world in developed and under-developed countries.
Case studies and examples:
In response to COVID-19, WHO published the "Strategic Preparedness and Response Plan" that outlines the health measures that should be taken in order to prevent the spread of COVID, as well as guidelines the international community and governments should follow to provide support and an outline for countries to prepare for and respond to COVID-19. The document discusses all the information WHO has about the virus and puts that knowledge into strategies and tactics that can help guide governments and international partners when creating context-specific, operational plans.
The US is currently halting payments to the WHO and has decided to pull out of the organization which could take effect as early as July 2021. Trump claims that the WHO was completely under China's control in the wake of COVID-19 and that the Chinese had instigated this global pandemic. In late May he said: "We will be terminating our relationship with the World Health Organization and directing those funds" to other global public health charities. The US was the top contributor in 2018-19 with $893 million. The abrupt leave could cause other members to follow in the US's footsteps and pull out of the organization too which would cause the WHO to lose a lot of power over global health authority.