Why did the colonisation of Virginia fail? - Coggle Diagram
Why did the colonisation of Virginia fail?
colonists left England too late to reach Virginia in time to plant crops
before colonists arrived, many were ill
the Tiger was damaged and let in water, spoiling the food it was carrying, including seeds for planting
dried peas and beans were rescued and edible, but couldn't be planted
any hope of establishing a self-sufficient colony had been lost, became dependent on the Native Americans for food
Expected to use Native Americans as labour
The merchants and gentlemen among them had no intention of doing any physical work.
The farmers were not prepared to work for the upper class and had only left England to work on their own land.
Soldiers who volunteered for the voyage were important for defending the colony and leading expeditions into uncharted territory. But they did not have skills to farm the land.
The soldiers were ill-disciplined and at least one soldier was executed and his body left rotting as a warning to others.
Colonists had good skills between them, too many craftsmen and not enough farmers. Artisans like bakers, weavers and brewers did not have the necessary raw materials. No stone for stonemasons, a planned fort could not be built as planned, instead built using wood.
hunters and fishermen faced problems, gunpowder was spoiled when the Tiger damaged its hull. English fishing techniques did not work in the shallow waters around Roanoke Island.
poor choice of colonists and were unprepared, relied on Native Americans for their survival
Not the right kinds of people in right numbers
many not cut out for life of hardship and long-term rewards
lots of general mistakes because trying to establish first colony
Native American resistance
colonists were lucky to have Manteo and Wanchese with them to help establish relations with the Algonquian people. However it wasn't enough.
Local chief, Wingina, ruled Roanoke island and a small settlement on the mainland. He was unpredictable and suspicious of the English. Grew tired of constant demands for food handouts from the settlers. Although welcoming at first, he turned against the English settlers.
Wingina believed the English had supernatural powers from their God that they directed against the Native Americans. Many believed this because the English seemed to have the power to kill them without touching them. It was noticed that after the English left a settlement, many natives would die from strange causes not seen before - actually diseases the English had brought over
conflict and fighting
another attempt at colonising Virginia set out in 1587, this time there were 17 women and several families on board. many came from London's poverty-stricken alleys. they would be familiar with hardship and willing to work hard for a better life in the New world. Each was guaranteed at least 500 acres of and to farm.
Manteo was made Lord of Roanoke by Walter Raleigh and the artist, John White, was put in overall charge of the expedition. White had survived the 1585 colonisation and knew what to expect. Manteo might be able to encourage the local Indians to co-operate with the English more, but the Indians were hostile from the start.
John White's adviser, George Howe disappeared and was found dead with 16 arrow wounds. Manteo led an attack against the local Roanoke Indians as a retaliation but it was a mistake, They killed some of the remaining friendly Indians from nearby Croatoan settlements instead.
John White went back to England to update Raleigh on what had happened, then went back 3 years later and Roanoke was deserted