Ch.11 Vitamins Required for Oral Soft Tissues and Salivary Glands - Coggle…
Ch.11 Vitamins Required for Oral Soft Tissues and Salivary Glands
Physiology of Soft Tissues
the oral cavity can reflect systemic disease before other signs and symptoms perceived become evident
the condition in the oral cavity may also cause systemic problems by affecting
Oral cavity is the site of a wide variety of systemic disease manifestation for several reasons
it has a rapid cellular turnover rate
it is under constant assault by microorganisms
it is a trauma-intense environment
Systemic circulation provides nutrient and removes metabolic waste products from underlying structures and the salivary glands via the blood supply
Nutritional deficiency oral signs and symptoms include pain, erythema, atrophy of tissues, and infection
Pyogenic (producing pus) and fungating (skin and lestion with ulcerations, necrosis and foul smell) microorganisms cause local infections in cracked epithelial surfaces
Saliva keeps surfaces of the oral cavity healthy and lubricated and is necessary to maintain functional integrity of taste buds
Parasympathetic autonomic nerves balance or slow down impulses from sympathetic nerves; parasympathetic stimulation increases the amount of saliva secreted
Sympathetic autonomic nerves stimulate the body in times of stress and crisis; sympathetic impulses influence salivary composition
Vitamins and Minerals Required for Healthy Oral Soft tissues"
Water-soluble vitamins include:
B-vitamins, Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic acid , Biotin, Vitamin C
Vitamins A & E
Iron, Zinc, Iodine
Saliva is Hypotonic
with its main constituent being water.
Hypotonic solutions have a lower solute concentration than plasma
Saliva functions as a buffer to maintain oral pH
Saliva contains more than 20 proteins and glycoproteins along with many electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, bicarbonate, inorganic phosphate , magnesium, sulfate, iodide, and fluoride.
pH of unstimulative saliva is approx. 6.1, but this can rise to 7.8 at high flow rates
Thiamin ( Vitamin b1)
Functions as a conenzyme in metabolism of energy nutrients via the tricarboxylic acid cycle (aka Krebs cycle or citric acid cycle ) to produce energy.
Role makes it crucial for normal functioning of the brain, nerves, muscles, and heart.
A deficiency in thiamin is characterized by disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism, which is impossible without Thiamin.
Thiamin is a component necessary for synthesis of niacin andit also helps regulate appetite.
Requirements of Tiamin is based on total caloric need. Thiamin is involved in using carbohydrates for energy.
the RDA for men (greater than or eqal to 14) is 1.2mg /day
for women (greater than or equal to 19) is 1.1mg/day
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
Functions as a conenzyme in metabolism of carbohydrate, protein, and fat to release cellular energy.
Essential for healthy eyes and skin and maintenance of mucous membranes. Along with thiamin, riboflavin is necessary for synthesis of niacin.
Recommended intake is 1.3mg per day for men (14+) and 1.1mg per day for women (19+)
Niacin ( Vitamin b3)
Niacin is loosely used to refer to 2 compounds, nicotine acid and nictinamide. Both compounds are used by the body.
Niacin is crucial as a coenzyme in energy (ATP) production
Body obtains niacin directly from food and also inderectly from coversion of amino acids.
Pantothenic Acid (B5)
Similar to other B vitamins in metabolic roles
Patothenic acid plays a key role in carbohhydrate , fat, and protein metabolism.
EAR, RDA, & UL has not been established for panthothenic acid for any age group
AI for adults is 5m per day
Important in synthesis and degradation of trigylcerides, phospholipids, and sterols and in formation of certain hormones and nerve-regulating substances.
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)
Term is commonly used for a group of three compounds: pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine. All three forms can be used by the body in their role as coenzymes.
Several essential roles for viramin B6 have been identified :check:
its role as coenzyme in protein metabolism,
conversionof tryptophan to niacin
synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids from essential fatty acids
energy production from glycogen
proper functioning of the nervous system, including synthesis of neruotransmitters
RDA is currently from 1.1 to 1.7mg daily for adults. Requirement increases with protein intake because of its major role of amino acid metabolism.
Folate/Folic Acid (vitamin B9)
generic term folate encompasses several compounds that have nutritional properties similar to those of folic acid.
Terms folate, folic acid , and folacin are used interchangeably
Naturally found in foods, whereas folic acid is a syntheitch form used in vitamin supplements and food fortification
Body converts folic acid to folate