SEMANTIC ROLES OF ADVERBIAL CLAUSES - Coggle Diagram
SEMANTIC ROLES OF ADVERBIAL CLAUSES
Adverbial -ing clauses of time
: ONCE, TILL, UNTIL, WHEN, WHENEVER, WHILE, WHILST, AFTER, BEFORE, ON, SINCE.
Adverbial -ed clauses of time/ Verbless clauses
of time: AS SOON AS, ONCE, TILL, UNTIL, WHEN, WHENEVER, WHILST.
Adverbial finite clauses of time
: AFTER, AS, BEFORE, ONCE, SINCE, TILL, UNTIL, WHEN, WHENEVER, WHILE, WHILST, NOW (THAT), AS LONG AS, SO LONG AS, IMMEDIATELY, DIRECTLY.
: Relates the time of the situation denoted in the clause, to the time in the M.C. It conveys duration and the relative proximity of the 2 situations.
: As, as long as, so long as, while, whilst, when, whenver, now (that)
Simultaneity: Situation in the M.C and in the subordinate.
: After, as soon as, directly, immediately, once, since, when, whenever, now (that)
Sequence in which the situation in the M.C occurs after that in the subordinat clause.
: Until, till, before.
The situation in the M.C occurred before or leading up to the situation in the subordinate clause.
Until: Result/ Time
Before: Purpose/ Result/ Time
A future event/ circumstance which is possible but cannot be predicted with certainty.
: WHEN, WHENEVER, ONCE, IF, WHERE, WHEREVER, THE ... THE
WHERE: Specific/ Position.
WHEREVER: Nonspecific/ Direction
Question of the fulfillment/ nonfulfillment of the condition
Truth of the proposition expressed by the M.C
Conveys the speaker's belief that the condition will not be fulfilled/ is not fulfilled/ was not fulfilled.
The verbs are
Future/ Present reference :arrow_right: Past
Past reference :arrow_right: Past Perfect
The situation in the M.C is related to that of the conditional clause.
The condition is not related to the situation in the M.C
Conditional clause: Expression of politeness which makes the speaker's utterance seemingly dependent on the permission of the hearer.
IF I MAY SAY SO, IF I MAY PUT IT BLUNTLY, IF I MAY BE PERSONAL. IF YOU CAN KEEP A SECRET, ETC
Conditional clause: Metalinguistic comment, suggesting that the wording is not precise or that it should not misunderstood in some sense not intended by the speaker. Calls for the hearer's agreement.
IF I MAY PUT IT SO, IF THAT'S THE CORRECT TERM, IF YOU SEE WHAT I MEAN, IF I MAY PHRASE IT DELICATELY.
Conditional clause: Uncertainty about the extralinguistic knowledge. The uncertainty may be the speaker's or the hearer's.
IF I'M CORRET, IF I UNDERSTAND YOU CORRETLY, IN CASE YOU DON'T REMEMBER, IF YOU REMEMBER, IF YOU KNOW WHAT I'M REFERRING TO
Conditional clause: Condition under which the speaker makes the utterance. (Indirect request, indirect offer, direct question)
RHETORICAL CONDITIONAL CLAUSES
Derived from the conditional clause
Derived from the M.C
THE VERB PHRASE IN CONDITIONAL CLAUSES
Open conditions in conditional clauses:
PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE (Formal, legal, quasi-legal contexts)
Future hypothetical conditions (formal contexts) Tentativeness
Was to/ were to + infinitive
Should + infinitive (Putative should)
PAST SUBJUNCTIVE AND THE PAST INDICATIVE
In literary style with subjunctive were and tentative/ putative should
AS LONG AS, SO LONG AS, ASSUMING (THAT), GIVEN (THAT), IN CASE, IN THE VENT THAT, JUST SO (THAT), ON CONDITION (THAT), PROVIDED (THAT), PROVIDING (THAT), SUPPOSING (THAT)
General recurrent contingency
: ONCE, WHEN, WHENEVER, WHERE, WHEREVER
Condition + time
: BEFORE, AS LONG AS, SO LONG AS, WHEN, WHENEVER, ONCE.
Exception + condition
: EXCEPT THAT, ONLY
IF POSSIBLE, IF NECESSARY.
Non finite/ Verbless clauses:
Introducing a phrase/ clause denoting a circumstance which might be expected to preclude the action of the main clause, but does not.
The situation in the M.C is contrary to expectation in the light of what is said in the concessive clause.
IF, EVEN IF, EVEN THOUGH, WHEN, WHEREAS, WHILE, WHILST
AS, THOUGH: Formal style: the prediction in the concessive clause is fronted.
Prepositional phrases + relative clauses: DESPITE, IN SPITE OF, IRRESPECTIVE OF, REGARDLESS OF, NOTWITHSTANDING + THE FACT (THAT)
ALTERNATIVE CONDITIONAL CONCESSIVE CLAUSES
WHETHER ... OR (WHETHER)
UNIVERSAL CONDITIONAL CONCESSIVE CLAUSES
WH-WORDS + -EVER/ IT DOESN'T MATTER, NO MATTER + WH ELEMENTS
WHEREAS, WHILE, WHILST
IN CONTRAST, BY CONTRAST
: BUT THAT, EXCEPT (THAT), EXCEPTING (THAT), SAVE THAT, ONLY, UNLESS, PROVIDED THAT.
Cause and effect
: Perception of an inherent objective connection in the real world.
Reason and consequence
: The speaker's inference of a connection.
Motivation and result
: The intention of an animate being that has a subsequent result.
Circumstance and consequence
: Reason + condition -> fulfilled or not. Relationshipt between a premise in the S.C and the conclusion in the M.C
The reason is related to the situation in the M.C
The reason is not related to the situation in the M.C but is a motivation for the implicit speech act of the utterance.
BECAUSE, 'CAUSE, SINCE, AS, FOR, IN CASE, IN THAT, AS, SINCE
: TO, IN ORDER TO, SO AS TO, SO THAT, IN ORDER THAT, SO, FOR FEAR (THAT), IN CASE, LEST.
: SO, SO THAT
: AS, LIKE
: AS IF, AS THOUGH, LIKE.
: AS, WITH OR WITHOUT CORRELATIVE SO, FRONTRED CORRELATIVE THE ... THE + COMPARATIVE FORMS.
Proportionality or equivalence of tendency or degree between 2 situations
: RATHER THAN, SOONER THAN + BARE INFINITIVE.
Like the M.C of the main clause
The speaker's tentativeness over the truth values of the M.C
The speaker's certainty
The speaker's emotional attitude toward the content of the M.C
Used to claim the heare's attention
Like an adverbial finite clause (introduced by as) (Relative/ Subordinator)
Like nominal relative clause