Education policy and reform (early years) - Coggle Diagram
Education policy and reform
Changes in the education system are brought to try and ensure everyone has the same opportunities
many people feel that middle class children receive a far better education than working class (so it has not been equal)
This section focuses on before education became:
1870 - 1918 education acts
only education available to WC children was provided by elementary schools in churches/charities
1870 Forster act
Tried to fill in the gaps within state run education - to make sure children had access to education until 10yrs old
1880 - was made compulsory
Fisher education act (1918)
State of the time - took responsibility for secondary education - made compulsory until 14yrs old
1944 Butler Act - Tripartite system
1944 - act was passed
stated that every child should go to primary school between 5-11 yrs old
@ 11 yrs old - take an examination called the 11+ ("a kind of IQ test")
Based on the result children would be sent to one of three schools - where they would receive an education suited to their ability:
Grammar schools were attended by about 20% of pupils and had a reputation as the most prestigious type of school under the Tripartite system. They specialised in academic subjects which led to high status, well paid jobs.
One of the main aims of the 1944 Education Act was to increase opportunities of working class pupils.
Secondary modern schools were attended by around 75% of pupils and were viewed as lower-status schools. Therefore, parity of esteem did not exist.
The system wasted talent. Many secondary modern pupils were not allowed to take O level exams which meant their education finished at 15 years old. They were denied any opportunity to progress further. This prevented them from realising their potential and making a full contribution to the economy.
the social class divide remained and may even have widened under the tripartite system. Grammar schools were full of middle class boys.
Comprehensive schools (1965 - 1979)
abolished both selection at age 11 by getting rid of the 11+ exam & 3 types of secondary school ordered to become comprehensives
All children from area regardless of social background/ability went to their local comprehensive
true comprehensive schools have:
no selection of ability
children of all abilities are admitted to same type of school
taught a range of academic and vocational subjects
Inequality persisted as there were still private and grammar schools - As they are selective it means access is not totally equal for the working classes
Schools were still socially divisive as it tends to be middle class pupils in top sets and working class pupils in bottom sets. There was still social divisions and selection but now in same school.
Due to catchment areas, working class pupils end up in failing comprehensives. A major problem was, as allocation to schools were based on catchment area this meant that you tended to get good middle class comprehensives in some areas and bad working class comprehensives in other areas.