Hinduism, Buddhism, and Ancient India - Coggle Diagram
Hinduism, Buddhism, and Ancient India
Caste System (Varnas) - hundreds of jatis (subcastes); it is illegal now but it is still ingrained in society
Vaisya - food production, tradesmen
Sudra - servant caste, not educated
Kshatriya - warrior caste
Untouchables - technically not part of the caste system, do the jobs that nobody else wants to do, very poor
Brahmin - priestly caste
Vedas - The Vedas are the worlds oldest writings; they were oral stories but were written down. They concentrate on Vishnu, Shiva, and Brahma. Consists of prayers, hymns, stories and philosophy.
A quote from the Vedas: "The human body is the temple of god. One who kindles the light of awareness within gets true light. The sacred flame of your inner shrine is constantly" (Chaplaincy Institute, 20 Quotes from the Ancient Scriptures of Hinduism).
Upanishads - The Upanishads are the second major Hindu texts, second to the Vedas. They were written by ascetic monks and focuses on sinceirty, character, discipline and individual depth.
Hinduism is a polytheistic religion, and many gods and their incarnations are worshipped
Some common ones are Shiva, Vishnu, Brahma, Krishna, Hanuman, Ganesha, Rama, Lakshmi, Durga and Kali
(Das, 10 of the Most Important Hindu Gods) Hanuman
(Das, 10 of the Most Important Hindu Gods) Kali
Stages of Spiritual Evolution - What do we want?
Stage Two - Wealth, Fame, and Power - there are more significant goals and interests than wealth, fame, and power
Stage Three - Community centered - focused on community, how do we live a better life and have better karma
Stage One - Pleasure seeking: pleasure is not bad but it is a distraction, it is important to move on
Stage Four - Moksha - to become one with god, release from cycle of birth, death, and rebirth
Bhakti Yoga - the path through love
Karma Yoga - path through work
Jnana Yoga - the path through knowledge
Raja Yoga - the path through psycho-physical exercise
(Astrotalk, The Holy Trinity of Hinduism)
Brahma - The creator
Has four heads and usually appears with the Vedas in his hand. Can take female or male form and is all powerful.
Vishnu - The preserver
God of mercy and goodness, opposes egoism, 8th incarnation is Krishna. Krishna is kind, heroic, knowledgable, and is a protector of cows. Vishnu balances goodness and evil.
Shiva - The destroyer
Patron of meditation, yoga and the arts. Has a son, Ganesha. Consort is Paravti who also appears as Durga. Kali is another of Paravti's incarnations and she is the goddess of destruction.
Achievement 2: They were extremely advanced in math (geometry, trigonometry) and sciences (vaccines, surgeries, cosmology etc.)
Achievement 3: They built complex structures and building, very architecturally advanced
A temple from the Gupta Empire (Newtonic, 10 Major Achievements of the Gupta Empire)
Achievement 1: It was a global trade center and there was trade with silks, medicine, textiles, spices, crops, metals etc. And they had a coinage system.
Gold coin (Newtonic, 10 Major Achievements of the Gupta Empire)
The Gupta Empire governed much of India. The empire was huge and they had a successful governing system. They were pioneers in many things such as the arts, math and science, coin systems etc. They were invaded by the Huns because the empire was so big it was impossible to control.
Gupta Empire in India (Moscato, Classical India)
"Indian civilization under the Gupta Empire was awesome. It was well done. It was classic." (Moscato, Classical India)
He was a prince with a wife and a son and didn't know anything about human suffering. When he left the palace for the first time he saw four passing sights. He wanted to end suffering so he leaves his old life and goes to the woods to become an ascetic monk
He soon realized that he needed to find the middle ground between having everything and having nothing; but when his disciples saw him eating and bathing, they left him.
Mara, the lord of darkness, tries to stop him but fails. Once he defeated Mara, he became enlightened.
"If by leaving a small pleasure one sees a great pleasure, let a wise person leave the small pleasure and look to the great" (The Pursuit of Happiness, Buddha)
(The Pursuit of Happiness, Buddha)
The Four Passing Sights
When Siddhartha left his palace, he saw four sights: The first a very old man, the second a sick man, the third sight was a dead man, and the fourth sight was a monk.
He realized that human suffering was not something people can stop so that is what made him give up his old life and become a monk
The Four Noble Truths
Life is suffering
Suffering is caused by our attachment to the material world
Suffering can end
Follow the eightfold path
Siddhartha sat under the Bo Tree for 49 days before becoming enlightened
Buddha and Mara's five daughters
(Kane, Shakyamuni Under Bodhi Tree)
The Eightfold Path
The eightfold path is the path to enlightenment
Bodhisattvas have a lot of compassion, instead of reaching Nirvana, they come back and help others reach their goal of self-enlightenment
They are wise people who guide others in their path towards enlightenment
The Dalai Lama is the head monk of Tibetan Buddhism. The Dalai Lama originally governed Tibet until China took over. Each Dalai Lama is a reincarnation of the past one.
(BBC, Dalai Lama)
Dharma - fate; destiny
Someone's path, their fate; must fulfill your role in society regardless of what it is
Karma - you reap what you sow
A system of merit. Your actions, thoughts, and deeds will come back to benefit you or haunt you. Actions from past lives dictate what issues we will face during our lifetime.
Samsara - reincarnation
The cycle of birth, death, and rebirth; atman (the soul) goes through cycles until we reach enlightenment/spiritual perfection