"The Critical Importance of Retrieval for Learning" by Karpicke…
"The Critical Importance of Retrieval for Learning" by Karpicke and Roediger
Once something can be remembered what happens if we keep studying or testing it?
Condition one: Don't study recalled pairs but still test
All conditions achieved a similar learning performance but actual recall was much lower in the conditions where testing was dropper for recalled pairs
Condition two: Study recalled pairs but don't test
Repeated study of recalled pairs did not produce any measurable learning
Condition three: Don't study or test recalled pairs
Final recall in the dropped testing conditions was 10-60% as opposed to 63-95% in the repeated test conditions.
Standard condition: Continue to study and test all pairs
Where repeated testing was observed students recalled 80% of pairs, this dropped to 36% and 33% where testing was dropped
How accurately do students predict their own learning?
Students were unaware of the effects of retrieval practice when predicting their scores
Does speed of learning correlate with long term retention?
In the short term quick learning led to reduced rate of forgetting and better long term retention
Long term there is no difference in the rates of forgetting for fast and slow learning conditions
The same learning curve should produce the same retention
It doesn't though. Repeated recall slowed forgetting as opposed to not repeating that recall
Testing and repeated recall is better for learning than studying stuff you already know
There is no point in studying something more if you can already remember it
Repeated encoding has no benefit but repeated recall does
Forgetting rate is determined by the practice involved rather than the speed of learning
When students self-test it is usually to find out what they do and don't know so they can remove it from their revision
eliminating facts that can be recalled from further retrieval practice reduces long-term retention. This is why apps like duolingo constantly encourage retrieval of earlier modules in their general tests