Perceptions and Attributions - Coggle Diagram
Perceptions and Attributions
Perception is a process that involves selection, organization, and interpretation of envi-ronmental factors, from shapes to people and other stimuli.
Stimuli are categorized into groups according to a number of laws: nearness, similarity, closure, simplicity, and figure and ground.
Misinterpretating stimuli can led on perceptual errors
Similar-to-me perception error.
Interviewers that rate candidates who are similar to themselves in appearance, background, and interests higher than candidates who are dissimilar.
Law of Nearness
Law of Similarity
Stimuli that are similar in size, color, shape, or form tend to be grouped together.
Law of Closure
Tendency to complete a figure, so that it has a consistent overall form.
Law of Figure and Ground
The tendency to group sensations into figures and backgrounds.
Person-based: Managers employ a profile schema of the characteristics of good, poor, and outstanding employees. The schema is used to compare current employees and job candidates.
Role-based: These are judgments about the roles people play or can play.
Self-based: Individuals generalize about their own prowess, competencies, and prefer-ences based on a current or previous experience.
Events-based: Managers develop a script or story about the events they are facing. For example, the creation of a script for conducting a difficult performance feedback session would help the manager prepare for the meeting.
Stereotyping is a translation step in the perceptual process employed to assist individuals in dealing with massive information-processing demands. It represents a useful, even essential, way of categorizing individuals (or events, organizations, etc.) on the basis of limited infor-mation or observation.
A prejudice is a stereotype that refuses to change when presented with information indicating the stereotype is inaccurate. Stereotypes can be helpful; prejudice is never helpful.
Personal prejudice occurs when members of another group (e.g., work group, race, age cohort) are perceived as a threat to one’s own interest.
Group prejudice occurs when a person conforms to norms of a group she belongs to.
Selective attention refers to the fact that people give some messages priority and put others on hold.
Divided attention occurs when a person must divide his or her mental efforts among tasks, each of which requires some amount of attention (multitasking).
The halo effect is when perception it occurs when a person allows one important factor or characteristic to bias his or her view, impression, or evaluation.
Similar-to-me errors means using yourself as a benchmark against which others are judged.
The attribution theory is a process by which individuals attempt to explain the reasons for events.
Behavior of others
Distinctiveness -In attribution theory the degree to which a per-son behaves similarly in different situations.
Internal attribution -Tendency to assume that events are caused by factors within a person’s control.
Consistency -In attribution theory the degree to which a per-son engages in the same behaviors at different times.
External attribution -Tendency to assume that events are caused by factors outside of a person’s control.
Consensus -In attribution theory the degree to which other people are engaging in the same behavior.
Fundamental attribution error -Tendency to underesti-mate the importance of external factors and overestimate the impor-tance of internal factors when making attribu-tions about the behavior of others.
Self-serving bias -Tendency to take credit for successful work and deny responsibility for poor work.
Impression management -The attempt to influence others’ perception of you.
Impression management tactics
Ingratiation: They seek to be viewed positively by flattering others or offering to do favors for them.
Self-promotion: They tout their own abilities and competence.
Exemplification: They seek to be viewed as dedicated by going above and beyond the call of duty.
Supplication: They seek to be viewed as needing help because of limitations
Intimidation: They seek to be viewed as powerful and threatening.