CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION TO PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE (LIFE CYCLE OF A SOFTWARE…
CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION TO PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE
STANDARDS AND BEST PRACTICES
Standards in computer programming are methods of programming that have been declared acceptable and there after are recommended as the approach that should be used.Closely tied with programming standards,best practices are simply recommended methods of writing code.
LIFE CYCLE OF SOFTWARE PROJECT AND PROGRAMMING
The software development life cycle (SDLC) is a conceptual model, used in project management , to describe the stages and tasks involved in each step of a project to write and deploy software.
Stages of a typical SDLC:
1.Planning and Requirement Analysis
Designing the Product Architecture
Building or Developing the Product
Testing the Product
Deployment in the Market and Maintenance
LIFE CYCLE OF A SOFTWARE PROJECT PHASES
REQUIREMENT GATHERING AND ANALYSIS
Business requirements are gathered in this phase. This phase is the main focus of the project managers and stake holders.
In this phase the system and software design is prepared from the requirement specifications which were studied in the first phase . System Design helps in specifying hardware and system requirements and also helps in defining overall system architecture
On receiving system design documents, the work is divided in modules/units and actual coding is started. Since, i this phase the code is produced so it is the main focus for the developer. this is the longest phase of the software development life cycle.
After the code is developed it is tested against the requirements to make sure that the product is actually solving the needs addressed and gathered during the requirements phase.
After successful testing the product is delivered/deployed to the customer for their use. As soon as the product is given to the customers they will first do the beta testing .
Once when the customers starts using the developed system then the actual problems comes up and needs to be solved from time to time. This process where the care is taken for the developed product is known as maintenance.
GENERATIONS OF PROGRAMMING
1.)1 GL or first generation language was ( and still is ) machine language or the level of instructions and data that the processor is actually given to work on ( which in conventional computers is a string of 0s and 1s ).
2.)2GL or second-generation language is assembler (sometimes called "assembly") language.
3.)3GL or third-generation language is a "high-level" programming language, such as PL/I, C, or Java.A compiler converts the statements of a specific high-level programming language into machine language. (In the case of Java, the output is called bytecode, which is converted into appropriate machine language by a Java virtual machine that runs as part of an operating system platform.) A 3GL language requires a considerable amount of programming knowledge.
4.)4GL or fourth-generation language is designed to be closer to natural language than a 3GL language. Languages for accessing databases are often described as 4GLs.
5.)5GL or fifth-generation language is programming that uses a visual or graphical development interface to create source language that is usually compiled with a 3GL or 4GL language compiler. Microsoft, Borland, IBM, and other companies make 5GL visual programming products for developing applications in Java
Fundamentals of Program Languages
a clustered sequence of operation to perform a well defined action. Different programming languages uses different terminology for functions: methods, sub-routines, procedures. Function introduces a key concept in programming called scope
a classification of data that determines how the compiler or interpreter will process the data. It defines the allowable operations on the data, the meaning of the data, and how the data can be stored.