BASIC FIRST AID (Univ. of Glasgow)
BASIC FIRST AID (Univ. of Glasgow)
Contents of a basic first aid kit
Platers in a variety of different sizes and shapes
Small, medium and large sterile gauze dressings
At least 2 sterile eye dressing
Disposable sterile gloves
Alcohol-free cleasing wipes
Thermometer (preferably digital)
Skin rash cream, such as hydrocortisone or calendula
Cream or spray to relieve insect bites and stings
Painkillers such as paracetamol (or infant paracetamol for children), aspirin (not to be given to children under 16), or ibuprofen
Distilled water for cleaning wounds
Compression should be performed at a rate of 100 to 120 beats per minute.
Step 1. Place the heel of one hand directly between the two nipples.
Keep the heel of your hand pressed down and your fingers raised.
Step 2, Lean directly over the casualty with the arms locked straight.
Push straight down towards the breast bone with the heel of your hand to begin chest compressions.
After each compression, release pressure whilst keeping your hands on the casualty's chest, letting the chest return to its normal position before the next compression.
Place the other hand over the top whilst interlocking the fingers.
Chest compressions should be performed 30 times in a row at a depth of 5 to 6 centimeters.
Step3. After 30 chest compressions, perform 2 rescue breath.
Perform the head tilt chin lift and pinch the casualty's nose using the hand from the forehead.
Create a seal around the mouth and blow whilst watching the chest rise for two breaths.
Step 4. Continue the cycle of 30 compressions to 2 rescue breath until either emergency help arrives.
Types of wound
A clean, straight cut caused by a sharp edge (i.e. a knife)
Tends to bleed heavily as multiple vessels may be cut directly across.
Connecting structures such as ligaments and tendons may also be involved.
A deep wound caused by a sharp, stabbing object (i.e. a nail).
May apper small from the outside but may damage deep tissues.
Particularly dangerous on the chest, abdomen or head where major organs are at risk.
A wound caused by a tearing force in which tissue is torn away from its normal position.
May bleed profusely depending on the size and location.
The tissue is often completely detached.
The loss of a distinct body part such as a limb, finger, toe or ear.
Often profuse bleeding.
In the case of limb loss this is a medical emergency.
A messy looking wound caused by a tearing or crushing force.
Doesn't tend to bleed as much as incised wounds but often causes more damage to surrounding tissues.
A wound caused by a scraping force or friction.
Tends not to be very deep but can often contain many foreign bodies such as dirt (i.e. after a fall on loose ground)
Controlling a severe bleeding
Step 1 - EXPOSE
If the wound is covered by clothing expose it to assess the type and severity.
Step 2 - PRESSURE
Is there a foreign body in the wound?
Do not apply direct pressure on wound - this could push object deeper.
Do not remove the object - this may cause more damage inside the wound,
Apply pressure either side of foreign body - pushing the wound edges together.
Apply direct pressure over wound, preferably with a clean dressing.
If not then ask the patient to apply the pressure themselves with their hand.
Step 3 - RAISE
Maintain pressure on the wound and raise it above the level of the heart - reduce blood flow to wound.
Injured arm: raise over casualty's head.
Injured leg: lie the casualty down and gently raise and hold the leg up.
Severe bleed/suspected shock: lie casualty down and raise both legs above the level of the heart.
Step 4 - WARM
Blood loss puts the casualty at risk of hypothermia (dangerously low body temperature).
So keep then warm using a blaket or rug if one is available. If not then use a jumper or jacket.
Step 5 - BANDAGE
DO NOT tourniquet the limb.
If a sterile bandage available then use it to dress the wound.
Wrap tight enough to maintain pressure but don't cut off the circulation - this may threaten the limb
If blood seeps through then apply another one on top or change the bandage if saturated.
Secure limb in a raised position and check occasionally to ensure circulation is not cut off.
Step 6 - Help
Call for emergency help if the bleeding continues.
Continue to apply pressure and pay attention to the casualty's breathing and consciousness level until the help arrives.
First aid facts
dates to the
yet many people today do not know how to give it!
Statistics: 10% of people who suffer a cardiac arrest, outside of hospitals, survive.
That increases to 40%
If CPR is started within 2 min...
a desfibrilator is attached to the chest within 4 min...
and then a paramedic arrives within 8 min.
to kill you
profusely from an
in 3 minutes
pinch the nose and
head FORWARD not back.
The recovery position
With the casualty on their back and both legs straight, place the arm nearest to you at a 90 degree angle to ther body with their palm facing up.
Take the other arm over the casualty's chest and place the back of their hand against the cheek closest to you.
Take the leg furthest away from you with your other hand, holding just above the knee.
Pull the leg up whilst keeping the sole of the foot on the ground.
With the casualties hand still on their cheek, bring the far leg towards you until the casualty has rolled onto their side.
Ensure the raised leg is bent at 90 degrees in line with their hip and ensure the casualty's airway remains open by tilting their head back.
Place one hand on their forehead and tro fingers of the other hand under the chin. Tilt the head back gently.
Safe position for the breathing but unconscious adult.
Remove glasses from the casualty's face and any sharp, bulky objects from their pockets.
What is bleeding?
Source of bleeding
Arterial blood is oxygenated and caried away from the heart.
A bleeding artery tends to produce dark red blood that spurts out in time with the casualty's heartbeat.
Venous blood is deoxygenated and it carried back towards the beat.
A bleeding vein tends to produce dark red blood that pours out of the wound and doesn't pulsate.
Capillaries are small blood vessels just under the skin.
They are damaged in even the least severe wounds and do not tend to produce enough bleeding to be of concern.
When capillaries burst underneath the sin, bruising develops.
Can flow too quickly for a clot to form.
If not controlled, the casualty may lose too much blod and go into schock
Schock: a state in which there is not enough blood in the body to supply all your organs with enough oxygen.
Break in the skin and damage to blood vessels.
Automated external defibrillators
An electrical device that aims to restart a stopped heart.
It works by delivering a schock to the casualty.
How do you use?
You do not need any prior experience to operate an AED.
AED's guide the user through each step via visual and/or audible prompts.
The two shock pads must be placed on the chest at the areas shown on them
Make sure to STAND WELL AWAY from the casualty and an AED in action.
1º. Check for danger
Fire and smoke
Your safety is the nº 1 priority
Is the area safe?
YES: Proceed to help the casualty
NO: Can you make the area safe?
YES: Make it safe and help casualty
NO: Stay back and call for help
1º) Can you hear me? 2º) Can you open your eyes?
YES: If there is any response then proceed to check airway.
NO: Gently hold shoulders and shake - Still no response? Proceed to check airway.
Is the airway open and clear of blockages?
YES: If patient can talk then the airway is open and clear. Proceed to acess breathing...
Responsive: Encourage the casualty to try and remove an obvious blockage with their hands or by coughing.
Unresponsive: Finger sweep to remove obvious blockages and open airway by tilting head back whilst lifting chin.
Place your ear to the casualty's mouth and look towards their chest, is the casualty breathing normally?
YES: You can hear normal breath sounds, feel breath on your cheek and see chest rising. Proceed to assess circulation...
NO: Shout for help and get them to call for emergency services. If alone call yourself and after start CPR.
Is the casualty bleeding severely anywhere?
YES: Control excessive bleeding and call for emergengy help.
NO: If A-C have been sucessfully dealt with then reassure the patient and wait with them for emergency.