Grammatical category of Voice (Passive Voice (Types of Passive…
Grammatical category of Voice
The subject is acted upon EX: The door was opened by a Chinese girl.
Voice auxiliary be
G. A. Veikhman: get instead of be.
How did that window get opened? unfavourable
The get-passive ----- more dynamic
The be-passive ----- simply a state
The get-passive ----getting into the state
EX: The chair was broken. The chair got broken.
Types of Passive Costructions
The subject of a passive construction - the direct object of an active construction
EX: The door was opened by a girl - A girl opened the door.
The subject of a passive construction - the indirect object of an active construction
EX: We were shown a room. - He showed us a room.
The subject of the passive construction - a prepositional object or an adverbial of a parallel active construction EX: The bed had not been slept in. - Nobody had slept in the bed.
Meaning of the Passive Voice
The state resulting from an action
EX: His office is closed. Come back tomorrow.
Continuous or habitual action
EX: I was annoyed by mosquitoes all night.
The subject is the doer of the action EX: The woman opened the door...
Problem of the Reciprocal Voice
We love each other.
They knew one another very well indeed.
Each other / one another cannot build analytical forms
Problem of the reflexive Voice
He seated himself on the grass...
H. Whitehall, VN. Zhigadlo, I. P. Ivanova and L. L. Iofik: subject of acts on itself.
Pronouns: notional / auxiliary elements.
But he never trusted himself. It surprised even herself. - notional (The voice is active!)
Auxiliary self-pronouns can be omitted- active voice.
Auxiliary self-pronouns cannot be omitted - reflexive voice or phraseological combinations
Problem of the Middle Voice
The door opened are qualified as passive by some scholars.
Cannot have by-agent
No pattern be + Participle II
The subject is not acted upon
The door opened is active.