Chapter 3: Policy process/ Policy Cycle
Chapter 3: Policy process/ Policy Cycle
presence of problem, what public is talking about
the problem is public/ private
whether govt need to take action.
people consider the problem as big, urgent
appropriate, worthy of govt action.
Must be defined as problem, the govt is aware of it.
It is a problem only if there is something can be done to it.
eg: earthquake vs air pollution
2. Transforming public
problem into issue
Factors to be considered:
identify the cause of problem
trace the root of problem
consider the complexity of the problem (political/ economical problem)
Issues imply the interpretation of problem, the role of govt is appropriate with a set of values.
3. Gets issue into agenda
a process where govt make decisions on which issue to resolve. Known as agenda-setting process.
Type of issues
(surrounding specific legislation
(specific project eg LYNAS project
(can be new emergence)
(happen every year eg. annual budget)
(previously failed to decide policy choice)
Definition of terms
public matters that affect more than just who is directly involved with the action.
known as public matters.
may come from private problems first.
eg: drug addiction problem leads to other problems in the society.
situation or condition that requires government action to resolve.
Need policy decision/ government actions to resolve.
Even if some cannot be resolved directly, might come up with prevention plan/ lessen the impact.
eg: natural disaster relief program, warning system.
Issues that government has considered for actions, disagreements from the public on the best solutions.
institutional/ governmental agenda
problems which legislator feel obliged to take actions, serious attention.
The politics of selecting issue for actions.
The process of choosing which issue to select and consider actions/ plan of actions.
problem and solutions either gain/ lose public, elite attention.
Kingdon Model (The Policy Window)
consists of matters which policy players would like to secure action
eg: healthcare issue,
alternatives to solve the problem
Policies advocacies such as public officials, bureaucrats develop proposals.
such as election result, changes in administration, pressure group campaign, swings in public mood
When policy window is open, as an opportunity for policy advocacies to push attention to their special problems.
Issue proposed are denied access to policy agenda
competition between pushing and opposing agenda
oppose as to maintain status quo, business survival
Agenda denial tactics
deny that problem exists
problem can be solved by non-governmental means (wear life jacket)
create fear on societal consequences of govt actions (Hudud)
ploy advocacies to further study the problem (to delay action)
insufficient knowledge, data on the need for action.
recourse electoral activity
Type of decisions
Policy decision criteria
Factors that influence the policy choices
of the nations
of the ruling govt, support agenda
how important, public affected by decision
public opinion of the issue
of the final resolution
policy or alternative is kept off of the agenda by force or culture
deliberately kept off the institutional agenda by those who control agenda setting.
political (lose supporters)
economic reason (affect economic such as tobacco ban)
killing the issue
Conditions for non-policy decision
a) dominant elites act openly to suppress issue, not of their interest
b) when political candidate the elite would not favor their interest
c) political system to facilitate the resolution of one but at the same time obstruct other issue.
believe it can be solved by other parties
Loss of Agenda Status
Issue has lost its agenda status, disappear from agenda.
action may have been taken on the issue
govt decide not to take action
govt decides to take action on other issues
public no longer perceived it as a problem
Reason for agenda status loss
policymaker feels the problem is solved, turn to other issues
changes in conditions that gave rise to the problem
emergence of new and more pressing issue
people are becoming accustomed to condition, no longer label it a problem
gradual decline of public interest on it
Type of issues government will
take actions upon are:
a) Systemic agenda
consist of all issues commonly perceived by every public
issues that might require government actions
not yet taken action by government
eg: Egypt crisis for Malaysian student
Characteristic of systemic agenda
merit public attention
widespread awareness/ attention
concern is shared by large segment
issue falls within authority of govt dept/ units
b) Institutional agenda
issues that legislator/ public officials feel obliged to pay attention/ to solve
demand attention of decision maker at institutional level
Government action is
mandatory and discretionary
considering the matter requested solutions.
eg: reauthorization of public programs
proposal for new legislation
incremental change in existing policy (emerge from policy subsystem)
as to affect small segment and specific ie IP copyright for entertainment
such as tax reduction, consumer protection, disaster relief