Population health and health data week 2 (Public health: (History: …
Population health and health data
Scientific investigations or patterns of health and ill health in a given community, explaining why and how often diseases occur in a given population. It examines the causes and distribution of the disease within a group of people
Originally people were hunters and gatherers, living in small groups and moving frequently. This way they had little problems with waste and water. They lived to eat and drink enough each day. They had a short life span.
People stayed in one place, raising crops and domesticated animals for food. A new range of diseases; people lived in the same place in large groups, transferring these diseases. The food was less protein based and the waste attracted rodents and insects. People were superstitious.
Plague: 1300's - 1700's
People believed in many things to help stop them from becoming infected by the disease, many of which failed. One of the things that did work, was quarantining individuals until they showed that they were not affected.
People moved to the city for job opportunities
Squalid conditions with people living in cramped/overcrowded conditions
Workplaces poorly ventilated and frequent accidents
Exposure to dust, heavy metal and solvents lead to new health problems
Killed thousands across Europe and America
Individuals thought it was by contact
John Snow investigated deaths and found gastrointestinal symptoms
He believed cholera spread through water, writing it in a newspaper article but no one took notice
Promote health in the community
Prevent disease before it occurs
Support clinical care
John Snow interviewed the people in the area and mapped out their daily habits
On the map, he plotted the incidence of death and illness determining the source of the problem was broad street water pump
He argued for people to stop drinking the water and removed the handle
Sewerage was within 3 feet of the water well, leaking sewerage into the water source and providing a breeding ground for cholera
Father of Epidemiology:
he proposed a new hypothesis for how cholera was transmitted
he tested the hypothesis by making comparisons between two groups of people
he provided evidence for an association between the well and getting cholera
he argued for intervention
Without epidemiology, then there would be no tracking of diseases back to the initial causative agent
The disease would continue to spread and infect more people, causing a pandemic
To meet current and plan for future services and provisions in:
Another term for
, the number of deaths due to a disease, divided by the total population
Another term for
. An individual can have several co-morbidities simultaneously. Prevalence is a measure used to determine the level of morbidity in a population
Better public health, improved sanitation, nutrition, housing, water quality, pollution levels.
Improved health education, diet, exercise, smoking and alcohol.
Advances in health care - immunisations, antibiotics and surgery
Understanding health and disease in a community and improving health and well being through priority health approaches addressing the disparities in health status between social groups.
There are a number of subgroups who don't enjoy the same level of health as the general population and identify as priority populations (indigenous, rural and remote, poor veterans, prisoners, overseas).
Health profiles, burden of disease measures, population based surveys...